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Cytology

About: Cytology is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7177 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 132705 citation(s).

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Book
01 Jan 1977-

2,447 citations


Book
01 Jan 1932-

1,048 citations


Book
01 Nov 1965-

1,025 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results support the use of HPV testing as the sole primary screening test, with cytology reserved for women who test HPV positive, with large demonstration projects needed to fully evaluate this strategy.

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Abstract: Several studies suggest that HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology in primary cervical screening. These studies had different designs and were reported in different ways. Individual patient data were collected for all European and North American studies in which cytology was routinely performed and HPV testing was included as an additional parallel test. More than 60,000 women were included. The sensitivity and specificity of HPV testing were compared with routine cytology, both overall and for ages <35, 35–49 and 50+. The age-specific prevalence of high risk HPV (hr-HPV) was also analysed. HPV testing was substantially more sensitive in detecting CIN2+ than cytology (96.1% vs. 53.0%) but less specific (90.7% vs. 96.3%). The sensitivity of HPV testing was similar in all studies carried out in different areas of Europe and North America, whereas the sensitivity of cytology was highly variable. HPV sensitivity was uniformly high at all ages, whereas the sensitivity of cytology was substantially better in women over the age of 50 than in younger women (79.3% vs. 59.6%). The specificity of both tests increased with age. Positivity rates for HPV testing in women without high-grade CIN were region dependent. These results support the use of HPV testing as the sole primary screening test, with cytology reserved for women who test HPV positive. Large demonstration projects are needed to fully evaluate this strategy. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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999 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2010-Lancet Oncology
TL;DR: HPV-based screening is more effective than cytology in preventing invasive cervical cancer, by detecting persistent high-grade lesions earlier and providing a longer low-risk period, but in younger women, HPV screening leads to over-diagnosis of regressive CIN2.

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Abstract: Summary Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is known to be more sensitive, but less specific than cytology for detecting cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We assessed the efficacy of cervical-cancer screening policies that are based on HPV testing. Methods Between March, 2004, and December, 2004, in two separate recruitment phases, women aged 25–60 years were randomly assigned to conventional cytology or to HPV testing in combination with liquid-based cytology (first phase) or alone (second phase). Randomisation was done by computer in two screening centres and by sequential opening of numbered sealed envelopes in the remaining seven centres. During phase one, women who were HPV-positive and aged 35–60 years were referred to colposcopy, whereas women aged 25–34 years were referred to colposcopy only if cytology was also abnormal or HPV testing was persistently positive. During phase two, women in the HPV group were referred for colposcopy if the HPV test was positive. Two rounds of screening occurred in each phase, and all women had cytology testing only at the second round. The primary endpoint was the detection of grade 2 and 3 CIN, and of invasive cervical cancers during the first and second screening rounds. Analysis was done by intention to screen. This trial is registered, number ISRCTN81678807. Findings In total for both phases, 47 001 women were randomly assigned to the cytology group and 47 369 to HPV testing. 33 851 women from the cytology group and 32 998 from the HPV-testing group had a second round of screening. We also retrieved the histological diagnoses from screening done elsewhere. The detection of invasive cervical cancers was similar for the two groups in the first round of screening (nine in the cytology group vs seven in the HPV group, p=0·62); no cases were detected in the HPV group during round two, compared with nine in the cytology group (p=0·004). Overall, in the two rounds of screening, 18 invasive cancers were detected in the cytology group versus seven in the HPV group (p=0·028). Among women aged 35–60 years, at round one the relative detection (HPV vs cytology) was 2·00 (95% CI 1·44–2·77) for CIN2, 2·08 (1·47–2·95) for CIN3, and 2·03 (1·60–2·57) for CIN2 and 3 together. At round two the relative detection was 0·54 (0·23–1·28) for CIN2, 0·48 (0·21–1·11) for CIN3, and 0·51 (0·28–0·93) for CIN2 and 3 together. Among women aged 25–34 years, there was significant heterogeneity between phases in the relative detection of CIN3. At round one the relative detection was 0·93 (0·52–1·64) in phase one and 3·91 (2·02–7·57) in phase two. At round two the relative detection was 1·34 (0·46–3·84) in phase one and 0·20 (0·04–0·93) in phase two. Pooling both phases, the detection ratio of CIN2 for women aged 25–34 years was 4·09 (2·24–7·48) at round one and 0·64 (0·23–1·27) at round two. Interpretation HPV-based screening is more effective than cytology in preventing invasive cervical cancer, by detecting persistent high-grade lesions earlier and providing a longer low-risk period. However, in younger women, HPV screening leads to over-diagnosis of regressive CIN2. Funding European Union, Italian Ministry of Health, Regional Health Administrations of Piemonte, Tuscany, Veneto and Emilia-Romagna, and Public Health Agency of Lazio.

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751 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20224
2021241
2020246
2019232
2018221
2017258

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Chris J.L.M. Meijer

17 papers, 1.1K citations

Pranab Dey

15 papers, 142 citations

Johannes Berkhof

11 papers, 658 citations

Christine Mian

11 papers, 297 citations

Philip E. Castle

10 papers, 195 citations