Cytotoxic T cell
About: Cytotoxic T cell is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 92492 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 4768477 citation(s). The topic is also known as: killer T cell & cytotoxic T lymphocyte.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1989-Annual Review of Immunology
TL;DR: Two types of cloned helper T cells are described, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokine synthesis are discussed.
Abstract: Effector functions in the immune system are carried out by a variety of cell types, and as our understanding of the complexity of the system expands, the number of recognized subdivisions of cell types also continues to increase. B lymphocytes, producing antibody, were initially distinguished from T lymphocytes, which provide help for B cells (1, 2). The T-cell population was further divided when surface markers allowed separation of helper cells from cytotoxic cells (3). Although there were persistent reports of heterogeneity in the helper T-cell compartment (reviewed below), only relatively recently were distinct types of helper cells resolved. In this review we describe the differences between two types of cloned helper T cells, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and we also discuss the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokines. Patterns of lymphokine synthesis are convenient and explicit markers to describe T-cell subclass differences, and evidence increases that many of the functions of helper T cells are predicted by the functions of the lymphokines that they synthesize after activation by antigen and presenting cells. The separation of many mouse helper T-cell clones into these two distinct types is now well established, but their origin in normal T-cell populations is still not clear. Further divisions of helper T cells may have to be recognized before a complete picture of helper T-cell function can be obtained.
TL;DR: Foxp3, which encodes a transcription factor that is genetically defective in an autoimmune and inflammatory syndrome in humans and mice, is specifically expressed in naturally arising CD4+ regulatory T cells and retroviral gene transfer of Foxp3 converts naïve T cells toward a regulatory T cell phenotype similar to that of naturally occurring CD4+.
Abstract: Regulatory T cells engage in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance by actively suppressing self-reactive lymphocytes. Little is known, however, about the molecular mechanism of their development. Here we show that Foxp3, which encodes a transcription factor that is genetically defective in an autoimmune and inflammatory syndrome in humans and mice, is specifically expressed in naturally arising CD4+ regulatory T cells. Furthermore, retroviral gene transfer of Foxp3 converts naive T cells toward a regulatory T cell phenotype similar to that of naturally occurring CD4+ regulatory T cells. Thus, Foxp3 is a key regulatory gene for the development of regulatory T cells.
01 Apr 1986-Journal of Immunology
TL;DR: A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished.
Abstract: A panel of antigen-specific mouse helper T cell clones was characterized according to patterns of lymphokine activity production, and two types of T cell were distinguished. Type 1 T helper cells (TH1) produced IL 2, interferon-gamma, GM-CSF, and IL 3 in response to antigen + presenting cells or to Con A, whereas type 2 helper T cells (TH2) produced IL 3, BSF1, and two other activities unique to the TH2 subset, a mast cell growth factor distinct from IL 3 and a T cell growth factor distinct from IL 2. Clones representing each type of T cell were characterized, and the pattern of lymphokine activities was consistent within each set. The secreted proteins induced by Con A were analyzed by biosynthetic labeling and SDS gel electrophoresis, and significant differences were seen between the two groups of T cell line. Both types of T cell grew in response to alternating cycles of antigen stimulation, followed by growth in IL 2-containing medium. Examples of both types of T cell were also specific for or restricted by the I region of the MHC, and the surface marker phenotype of the majority of both types was Ly-1+, Lyt-2-, L3T4+, Both types of helper T cell could provide help for B cells, but the nature of the help differed. TH1 cells were found among examples of T cell clones specific for chicken RBC and mouse alloantigens. TH2 cells were found among clones specific for mouse alloantigens, fowl gamma-globulin, and KLH. The relationship between these two types of T cells and previously described subsets of T helper cells is discussed.
03 Mar 2003-Nature Immunology
TL;DR: It is reported that the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 is specifically expressed in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and is required for their development and function and ectopic expression ofFoxp3 confers suppressor function on peripheral CD4-CD25− T cells.
Abstract: CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential for the active suppression of autoimmunity. Here we report that the forkhead transcription factor Foxp3 is specifically expressed in CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells and is required for their development. The lethal autoimmune syndrome observed in Foxp3-mutant scurfy mice and Foxp3-null mice results from a CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell deficiency and not from a cell-intrinsic defect of CD4+CD25- T cells. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells rescue disease development and preferentially expand when transferred into neonatal Foxp3-deficient mice. Furthermore, ectopic expression of Foxp3 confers suppressor function on peripheral CD4+CD25- T cells. Thus, Foxp3 is a critical regulator of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cell development and function.
TL;DR: It is shown that IL-6, an acute phase protein induced during inflammation, completely inhibits the generation of Foxp3+ Treg cells induced by TGF-β, and the data demonstrate a dichotomy in thegeneration of pathogenic (TH17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T Cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury.
Abstract: On activation, T cells undergo distinct developmental pathways, attaining specialized properties and effector functions. T-helper (T(H)) cells are traditionally thought to differentiate into T(H)1 and T(H)2 cell subsets. T(H)1 cells are necessary to clear intracellular pathogens and T(H)2 cells are important for clearing extracellular organisms. Recently, a subset of interleukin (IL)-17-producing T (T(H)17) cells distinct from T(H)1 or T(H)2 cells has been described and shown to have a crucial role in the induction of autoimmune tissue injury. In contrast, CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T (T(reg)) cells inhibit autoimmunity and protect against tissue injury. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a critical differentiation factor for the generation of T(reg) cells. Here we show, using mice with a reporter introduced into the endogenous Foxp3 locus, that IL-6, an acute phase protein induced during inflammation, completely inhibits the generation of Foxp3+ T(reg) cells induced by TGF-beta. We also demonstrate that IL-23 is not the differentiation factor for the generation of T(H)17 cells. Instead, IL-6 and TGF-beta together induce the differentiation of pathogenic T(H)17 cells from naive T cells. Our data demonstrate a dichotomy in the generation of pathogenic (T(H)17) T cells that induce autoimmunity and regulatory (Foxp3+) T cells that inhibit autoimmune tissue injury.
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