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Data type

About: Data type is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6962 publications have been published within this topic receiving 144590 citations. The topic is also known as: data type (computer programming) & type.


Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
03 Sep 1996
TL;DR: A task by data type taxonomy with seven data types and seven tasks (overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, relate, history, and extracts) is offered.
Abstract: A useful starting point for designing advanced graphical user interfaces is the visual information seeking Mantra: overview first, zoom and filter, then details on demand. But this is only a starting point in trying to understand the rich and varied set of information visualizations that have been proposed in recent years. The paper offers a task by data type taxonomy with seven data types (one, two, three dimensional data, temporal and multi dimensional data, and tree and network data) and seven tasks (overview, zoom, filter, details-on-demand, relate, history, and extracts).

5,290 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper organizes this material by establishing the relationship between the variations in the images and the type of registration techniques which can most appropriately be applied, and establishing a framework for understanding the merits and relationships between the wide variety of existing techniques.
Abstract: Registration is a fundamental task in image processing used to match two or more pictures taken, for example, at different times, from different sensors, or from different viewpoints. Virtually all large systems which evaluate images require the registration of images, or a closely related operation, as an intermediate step. Specific examples of systems where image registration is a significant component include matching a target with a real-time image of a scene for target recognition, monitoring global land usage using satellite images, matching stereo images to recover shape for autonomous navigation, and aligning images from different medical modalities for diagnosis.Over the years, a broad range of techniques has been developed for various types of data and problems. These techniques have been independently studied for several different applications, resulting in a large body of research. This paper organizes this material by establishing the relationship between the variations in the images and the type of registration techniques which can most appropriately be applied. Three major types of variations are distinguished. The first type are the variations due to the differences in acquisition which cause the images to be misaligned. To register images, a spatial transformation is found which will remove these variations. The class of transformations which must be searched to find the optimal transformation is determined by knowledge about the variations of this type. The transformation class in turn influences the general technique that should be taken. The second type of variations are those which are also due to differences in acquisition, but cannot be modeled easily such as lighting and atmospheric conditions. This type usually effects intensity values, but they may also be spatial, such as perspective distortions. The third type of variations are differences in the images that are of interest such as object movements, growths, or other scene changes. Variations of the second and third type are not directly removed by registration, but they make registration more difficult since an exact match is no longer possible. In particular, it is critical that variations of the third type are not removed. Knowledge about the characteristics of each type of variation effect the choice of feature space, similarity measure, search space, and search strategy which will make up the final technique. All registration techniques can be viewed as different combinations of these choices. This framework is useful for understanding the merits and relationships between the wide variety of existing techniques and for assisting in the selection of the most suitable technique for a specific problem.

4,769 citations

Book
01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: This text provides a comprehensive introduction both to type systems in computer science and to the basic theory of programming languages, with a variety of approaches to modeling the features of object-oriented languages.
Abstract: A type system is a syntactic method for automatically checking the absence of certain erroneous behaviors by classifying program phrases according to the kinds of values they compute. The study of type systems -- and of programming languages from a type-theoretic perspective -- has important applications in software engineering, language design, high-performance compilers, and security.This text provides a comprehensive introduction both to type systems in computer science and to the basic theory of programming languages. The approach is pragmatic and operational; each new concept is motivated by programming examples and the more theoretical sections are driven by the needs of implementations. Each chapter is accompanied by numerous exercises and solutions, as well as a running implementation, available via the Web. Dependencies between chapters are explicitly identified, allowing readers to choose a variety of paths through the material.The core topics include the untyped lambda-calculus, simple type systems, type reconstruction, universal and existential polymorphism, subtyping, bounded quantification, recursive types, kinds, and type operators. Extended case studies develop a variety of approaches to modeling the features of object-oriented languages.

2,391 citations

18 Dec 2006
TL;DR: The parallel landscape is frame with seven questions, and the following are recommended to explore the design space rapidly: • The overarching goal should be to make it easy to write programs that execute efficiently on highly parallel computing systems • The target should be 1000s of cores per chip, as these chips are built from processing elements that are the most efficient in MIPS (Million Instructions per Second) per watt, MIPS per area of silicon, and MIPS each development dollar.
Abstract: Author(s): Asanovic, K; Bodik, R; Catanzaro, B; Gebis, J; Husbands, P; Keutzer, K; Patterson, D; Plishker, W; Shalf, J; Williams, SW | Abstract: The recent switch to parallel microprocessors is a milestone in the history of computing. Industry has laid out a roadmap for multicore designs that preserves the programming paradigm of the past via binary compatibility and cache coherence. Conventional wisdom is now to double the number of cores on a chip with each silicon generation. A multidisciplinary group of Berkeley researchers met nearly two years to discuss this change. Our view is that this evolutionary approach to parallel hardware and software may work from 2 or 8 processor systems, but is likely to face diminishing returns as 16 and 32 processor systems are realized, just as returns fell with greater instruction-level parallelism. We believe that much can be learned by examining the success of parallelism at the extremes of the computing spectrum, namely embedded computing and high performance computing. This led us to frame the parallel landscape with seven questions, and to recommend the following: • The overarching goal should be to make it easy to write programs that execute efficiently on highly parallel computing systems • The target should be 1000s of cores per chip, as these chips are built from processing elements that are the most efficient in MIPS (Million Instructions per Second) per watt, MIPS per area of silicon, and MIPS per development dollar. • Instead of traditional benchmarks, use 13 “Dwarfs” to design and evaluate parallel programming models and architectures. (A dwarf is an algorithmic method that captures a pattern of computation and communication.) • “Autotuners” should play a larger role than conventional compilers in translating parallel programs. • To maximize programmer productivity, future programming models must be more human-centric than the conventional focus on hardware or applications. • To be successful, programming models should be independent of the number of processors. • To maximize application efficiency, programming models should support a wide range of data types and successful models of parallelism: task-level parallelism, word-level parallelism, and bit-level parallelism. 1 The Landscape of Parallel Computing Research: A View From Berkeley • Architects should not include features that significantly affect performance or energy if programmers cannot accurately measure their impact via performance counters and energy counters. • Traditional operating systems will be deconstructed and operating system functionality will be orchestrated using libraries and virtual machines. • To explore the design space rapidly, use system emulators based on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that are highly scalable and low cost. Since real world applications are naturally parallel and hardware is naturally parallel, what we need is a programming model, system software, and a supporting architecture that are naturally parallel. Researchers have the rare opportunity to re-invent these cornerstones of computing, provided they simplify the efficient programming of highly parallel systems.

2,262 citations

Book
01 Jun 1986
TL;DR: Logic of propositions reasoning about predicates functions and operations set notation composite objects and invariants map notation sequence notation data rectification more on data types operation decomposition.
Abstract: Logic of propositions reasoning about predicates functions and operations set notation composite objects and invariants map notation sequence notation data rectification more on data types operation decomposition a small case study.

2,129 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202331
202270
2021197
2020349
2019353
2018380