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# Debye length

About: Debye length is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3460 publications have been published within this topic receiving 88042 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a kinetic theory approach to collision processes in ionized and neutral gases is presented, which is adequate for the unified treatment of the dynamic properties of gases over a continuous range of pressures from the Knudsen limit to the high pressure limit where the aerodynamic equations are valid.

Abstract: A kinetic theory approach to collision processes in ionized and neutral gases is presented. This approach is adequate for the unified treatment of the dynamic properties of gases over a continuous range of pressures from the Knudsen limit to the high-pressure limit where the aerodynamic equations are valid. It is also possible to satisfy the correct microscopic boundary conditions. The method consists in altering the collision terms in the Boltzmann equation. The modified collision terms are constructed so that each collision conserves particle number, momentum, and energy; other characteristics such as persistence of velocities and angular dependence may be included. The present article illustrates the technique for a simple model involving the assumption of a collision time independent of velocity; this model is applied to the study of small amplitude oscillations of one-component ionized and neutral gases. The initial value problem for unbounded space is solved by performing a Fourier transformation on the space variables and a Laplace transformation on the time variable. For uncharged gases there results the correct adiabatic limiting law for sound-wave propagation at high pressures and, in addition, one obtains a theory of absorption and dispersion of sound for arbitrary pressures. For ionized gases the difference in the nature of the organization in the low-pressure plasma oscillations and in high-pressure sound-type oscillations is studied. Two important cases are distinguished. If the wavelengths of the oscillations are long compared to either the Debye length or the mean free path, a small change in frequency is obtained as the collision frequency varies from zero to infinity. The accompanying absorption is small; it reaches its maximum value when the collision frequency equals the plasma frequency. The second case refers to waves shorter than both the Debye length and the mean free path; these waves are characterized by a very heavy absorption.

6,627 citations

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TL;DR: The processes that lead to charging of dust grains in a plasma are briefly reviewed in this article, where it is shown that the radial transport of dust contained in the spokes may be responsible for the rich radial structure in Saturn's rings.

Abstract: The processes that lead to charging of dust grains in a plasma are briefly reviewed. Whereas for single grains the results have been long known, the reduction of the average charge on a grain by 'Debye screening' has only recently been discovered. This reduction can be important in the Jovian ring and in the rings of Uranus. The emerging field of gravitoelectrodynamics which deals with the motion of charged grains in a planetary magnetosphere is then reviewed. Important mechanisms for distributing grains in radial distance are due to stochastic fluctuations of the grain charge and a systematic variation due to motion through plasma gradients. The electrostatic levitation model for the formation of spokes is discussed, and it is shown that the radial transport of dust contained in the spokes may be responsible for the rich radial structure in Saturn's rings. Finally, collective effects in dusty plasmas are discussed which affect various waves, such as density waves in planetary rings and low-frequency plasma waves. The possibility of charged grains forming a Coulomb lattice is briefly described.

1,470 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the behavior of the electrons in a dense electron gas is analyzed in terms of their density fluctuations, which are then split into two components, one component associated with the organized oscillation of the system as a whole, the so-called "plasma" oscillation, and the other component representing the random thermal motion of the individual electrons.

Abstract: The behavior of the electrons in a dense electron gas is analyzed in terms of their density fluctuations. These density fluctuations may be split into two components. One component is associated with the organized oscillation of the system as a whole, the so-called "plasma" oscillation. The other is associated with the random thermal motion of the individual electrons and shows no collective behavior. It represents a collection of individual electrons surrounded by comoving clouds of charge which screen the electron fields within a distance of the order of magnitude of the Debye length. This split up of the density fluctuations corresponds to an effective separation of the Coulomb interaction into long-range and short-range parts; the separation occurs at roughly the Debye length.The relation between the individual and collective aspects of the electron gas is discussed in detail, and a general physical picture of the behavior of the system is given. It is shown that for phenomena involving distances greater than the Debye length, the system behaves collectively; for distances shorter than this length, it may be treated as a collection of approximately free individual particles, whose interactions may be described in terms of two-body collisions.This approach is used to study the interaction of a specified electron with the remainder of the electron gas. It is shown that the collective part of the response of this remainder to the field of the specified particle screens this field within a distance of the order of the Debye length; this furnishes a detailed description of the screening process. Moreover, if the specified particle moves with greater than the mean thermal speed, it excites collective oscillations in the form of a wake trailing the particle. The frequency of these collective oscillations and the energy emitted by the particle are calculated. A correspondence theoretical method is used to treat this phenomenon for the electrons in a metal. The results are in good agreement with the experiments of Ruthemann and Lang on the energy loss of kilovolt electrons in this metallic films.The generalization of these methods to an arbitrary interparticle force is carried out, and a criterion is obtained for the validity of a collective description of the particle interactions. It is shown that strong forces and high particle density favor collective behavior, while high random thermal velocities oppose it.

1,096 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the scaling picture of de Gennes et al. was extended to both unentangled and entangled regimes of intrinsically flexible polyelectrolyte solutions, and the dynamics of the chain is Rouse-like with viscosity weakly increasing with concentration η∼c 1/2 (Fuoss law), relaxation time decreasing with concentration τ Rouse ∼c -1/2, and diffusion coefficient independent of concentration.

Abstract: We extend and generalize the scaling picture of de Gennes et al. and Pfeuty to both unentangled and entangled regimes of intrinsically flexible polyelectrolyte solutions. In semidilute solution the electrostatic persistence length of a polyelectrolyte is assumed to be proportional to the Debye screening length. If the salt concentration is low, the unentangled semidilute concentration regime spans three to four decades in polymer concentration. In this regime the dynamics of the chain is Rouse-like with viscosity weakly increasing with concentration η∼c 1/2 (Fuoss law), relaxation time decreasing with concentration τ Rouse ∼c -1/2 , and diffusion coefficient independent of concentration. Polyelectrolytes should form entanglements at the same relative viscosity as neutral polymer solutions (η≅50η s ). In the entangled regime of salt-free polyelectrolytes we predict the viscosity η∼c 3/2 , relaxation time to be independent of concentration, and diffusion coefficient D self ∼c -1/2 . Our predictions are found to compare favorably with experiments

817 citations

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TL;DR: In the presence of high concentrations (> 3 M) of divalent cations, where the electrostatic force can be completely ignored, another repulsive force was observed with silicon nitride tips on mica and this repulsion is attributed to the hydration force.

Abstract: In atomic force microscopy, the tip experiences electrostatic, van der Waals, and hydration forces when imaging in electrolyte solution above a charged surface. To study the electrostatic interaction force vs distance, curves were recorded at different salt concentrations and pH values. This was done with tips bearing surface charges of different sign and magnitude (silicon nitride, Al 2 O 3 , glass, and diamond) on negatively charged surfaces (mica and glass). In addition to the van der Waals attraction, neutral and negatively charged tips experienced a repulsive force. This repulsive force depended on the salt concentration. It decayed exponentially with distance having a decay length similar to the Debye length. Typical forces were about 0.1 nN strong. With positively charged tips, purely attractive forces were observed. Comparing these results with calculations showed the electrostatic origin of this force. In the presence of high concentrations (> 3 M) of divalent cations, where the electrostatic force can be completely ignored, another repulsive force was observed with silicon nitride tips on mica. This force decayed roughly exponentially with a decay length of 3 nm and was ∼0.07-nN strong. This repulsion is attributed to the hydration force.

745 citations