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# Deceleration parameter

About: Deceleration parameter is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1776 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 89440 citation(s).

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University of California, Berkeley

^{1}, Harvard University^{2}, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile^{3}, University of Washington^{4}, Space Telescope Science Institute^{5}, European Southern Observatory^{6}, Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy^{7}, University of Michigan^{8}, University of Hawaii^{9}TL;DR: In this article, the authors used spectral and photometric observations of 10 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 " z " 0.62.

Abstract: We present spectral and photometric observations of 10 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 " z " 0.62. The luminosity distances of these objects are determined by methods that employ relations between SN Ia luminosity and light curve shape. Combined with previous data from our High-z Supernova Search Team and recent results by Riess et al., this expanded set of 16 high-redshift supernovae and a set of 34 nearby supernovae are used to place constraints on the following cosmo- logical parameters: the Hubble constant the mass density the cosmological constant (i.e., the (H 0 ), () M ), vacuum energy density, the deceleration parameter and the dynamical age of the universe ) " ), (q 0 ), ) M \ 1) methods. We estimate the dynamical age of the universe to be 14.2 ^ 1.7 Gyr including systematic uncer- tainties in the current Cepheid distance scale. We estimate the likely e†ect of several sources of system- atic error, including progenitor and metallicity evolution, extinction, sample selection bias, local perturbations in the expansion rate, gravitational lensing, and sample contamination. Presently, none of these e†ects appear to reconcile the data with and ) " \ 0 q 0 " 0.

15,427 citations

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01 Jan 1998

TL;DR: The spectral and photometric observations of 10 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 � z � 0.62 were presented in this paper.

Abstract: We present spectral and photometric observations of 10 type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the redshift range 0.16 � z � 0.62. The luminosity distances of these objects are determined by methods that employ relations between SN Ia luminosity and light curve shape. Combined with previous data from our High-Z Supernova Search Team (Garnavich et al. 1998; Schmidt et al. 1998) and Riess et al. (1998a), this expanded set of 16 high-redshift supernovae and a set of 34 nearby supernovae are used to place constraints on the following cosmological parameters: the Hubble constant (H0), the mass density (M), the cosmological constant (i.e., the vacuum energy density, �), the deceleration parameter (q0), and the dynamical age of the Universe (t0). The distances of the high-redshift SNe Ia are, on average, 10% to 15% farther than expected in a low mass density (M = 0.2) Universe without a cosmological constant. Different light curve fitting methods, SN Ia subsamples, and prior constraints unanimously favor eternally expanding models with positive cosmological constant (i.e., � > 0) and a current acceleration of the expansion (i.e., q0 < 0). With no prior constraint on mass density other than M � 0, the spectroscopically confirmed SNe Ia are statistically consistent with q0 < 0 at the 2.8�

10,279 citations

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TL;DR: For a flat universe with a cosmological constant, the transition between the two epochs is constrained to be at z = 0.46 ± 0.13 as mentioned in this paper, and w = -1.02 ± (and w < -0.76 at the 95% confidence level) for an assumed static equation of state of dark energy.

Abstract: We have discovered 16 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have used them to provide the first conclusive evidence for cosmic deceleration that preceded the current epoch of cosmic acceleration. These objects, discovered during the course of the GOODS ACS Treasury program, include 6 of the 7 highest redshift SNe Ia known, all at z > 1.25, and populate the Hubble diagram in unexplored territory. The luminosity distances to these objects and to 170 previously reported SNe Ia have been determined using empirical relations between light-curve shape and luminosity. A purely kinematic interpretation of the SN Ia sample provides evidence at the greater than 99% confidence level for a transition from deceleration to acceleration or, similarly, strong evidence for a cosmic jerk. Using a simple model of the expansion history, the transition between the two epochs is constrained to be at z = 0.46 ± 0.13. The data are consistent with the cosmic concordance model of ΩM ≈ 0.3, ΩΛ ≈ 0.7 (χ = 1.06) and are inconsistent with a simple model of evolution or dust as an alternative to dark energy. For a flat universe with a cosmological constant, we measure ΩM = 0.29 ± (equivalently, ΩΛ = 0.71). When combined with external flat-universe constraints, including the cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure, we find w = -1.02 ± (and w < -0.76 at the 95% confidence level) for an assumed static equation of state of dark energy, P = wρc2. Joint constraints on both the recent equation of state of dark energy, w0, and its time evolution, dw/dz, are a factor of ~8 more precise than the first estimates and twice as precise as those without the SNe Ia discovered with HST. Our constraints are consistent with the static nature of and value of w expected for a cosmological constant (i.e., w0 = -1.0, dw/dz = 0) and are inconsistent with very rapid evolution of dark energy. We address consequences of evolving dark energy for the fate of the universe.

4,027 citations

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TL;DR: It is argued that a number of models in which the energy density of the scalar field red-shifts in a specific manner are studied could reconcile the low dynamical estimates of the mean mass density with the negligibly small spatial curvature preferred by inflation.

Abstract: The cosmological consequences of a pervasive, rolling, self-interacting, homogeneous scalar field are investigated. A number of models in which the energy density of the scalar field red-shifts in a specific manner are studied. In these models the current epoch is chosen to be scalar-field dominated to agree with dynamical estimates of the density parameter, ${\ensuremath{\Omega}}_{\mathrm{dyn}\mathrm{\ensuremath{\sim}}0.2}$, and zero spatial curvature. The required scalar-field potential is ``nonlinear'' and decreases in magnitude as the value of the scalar field increases. A special solution of the field equations which is an attractive, time-dependent, fixed point is presented. These models are consistent with the classical tests of gravitation theory. The E\"otv\"os-Dicke measurements strongly constrain the coupling of the scalar field to light (nongravitational) fields. Nucleosynthesis proceeds as in the standard hot big-bang model. In linear perturbation theory the behavior of baryonic perturbations, in the baryon-dominated epoch, do not differ significantly from the canonical scenario, while the presence of a substantial amount of homogeneous scalar-field energy density at low red-shifts inhibits the growth of perturbations in the baryonic fluid. The energy density in the scalar field is not appreciably perturbed by nonrelativistic gravitational fields, either in the radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, or scalar-field-dominated epochs. On the basis of this effect, we argue that these models could reconcile the low dynamical estimates of the mean mass density with the negligibly small spatial curvature preferred by inflation.

3,667 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the first conclusive evidence for cosmic deceleration that preceded the current epoch of cosmic acceleration was provided by the discovery of 16 Type Ia supernovae with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

Abstract: We have discovered 16 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and have used them to provide the first conclusive evidence for cosmic deceleration that preceded the current epoch of cosmic acceleration. These objects, discovered during the course of the GOODS ACS Treasury program, include 6 of the 7 highest-redshift SNe Ia known, all at z>1.25, and populate the Hubble diagram in unexplored territory. The luminosity distances to these and 170 previous SNe Ia are provided. A purely kinematic interpretation of the SN Ia sample provides evidence at the > 99% confidence level for a transition from deceleration to acceleration or similarly, strong evidence for a cosmic jerk. Using a simple model of the expansion history, the transition between the two epochs is constrained to be at z=0.46 +/- 0.13. The data are consistent with the cosmic concordance model of Omega_M ~ 0.3, Omega_Lambda~0.7 (chi^2_dof=1.06), and are inconsistent with a simple model of evolution or dust as an alternative to dark energy. For a flat Universe with a cosmological constant. When combined with external flat-Universe constraints we find w=-1.02 + 0.13 - 0.19 (and $<-0.76 at the 95% confidence level) for an assumed static equation of state of dark energy, P = w\rho c^2. Joint constraints on both the recent equation of state of dark energy, $w_0$, and its time evolution, dw/dz, are a factor of ~8 more precise than its first estimate and twice as precise as those without the SNe Ia discovered with HST. Our constraints are consistent with the static nature of and value of w expected for a cosmological constant (i.e., w_0 = -1.0, dw/dz = 0), and are inconsistent with very rapid evolution of dark energy. We address consequences of evolving dark energy for the fate of the Universe.

3,399 citations