scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Topic

Decoding methods

About: Decoding methods is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 65755 publications have been published within this topic receiving 900042 citations.


Papers
More filters
Book
01 Jan 1963
TL;DR: A simple but nonoptimum decoding scheme operating directly from the channel a posteriori probabilities is described and the probability of error using this decoder on a binary symmetric channel is shown to decrease at least exponentially with a root of the block length.
Abstract: A low-density parity-check code is a code specified by a parity-check matrix with the following properties: each column contains a small fixed number j \geq 3 of l's and each row contains a small fixed number k > j of l's. The typical minimum distance of these codes increases linearly with block length for a fixed rate and fixed j . When used with maximum likelihood decoding on a sufficiently quiet binary-input symmetric channel, the typical probability of decoding error decreases exponentially with block length for a fixed rate and fixed j . A simple but nonoptimum decoding scheme operating directly from the channel a posteriori probabilities is described. Both the equipment complexity and the data-handling capacity in bits per second of this decoder increase approximately linearly with block length. For j > 3 and a sufficiently low rate, the probability of error using this decoder on a binary symmetric channel is shown to decrease at least exponentially with a root of the block length. Some experimental results show that the actual probability of decoding error is much smaller than this theoretical bound.

11,592 citations

Proceedings Article
01 Jan 1993

7,742 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A generalization of orthogonal designs is shown to provide space-time block codes for both real and complex constellations for any number of transmit antennas and it is shown that many of the codes presented here are optimal in this sense.
Abstract: We introduce space-time block coding, a new paradigm for communication over Rayleigh fading channels using multiple transmit antennas. Data is encoded using a space-time block code and the encoded data is split into n streams which are simultaneously transmitted using n transmit antennas. The received signal at each receive antenna is a linear superposition of the n transmitted signals perturbed by noise. Maximum-likelihood decoding is achieved in a simple way through decoupling of the signals transmitted from different antennas rather than joint detection. This uses the orthogonal structure of the space-time block code and gives a maximum-likelihood decoding algorithm which is based only on linear processing at the receiver. Space-time block codes are designed to achieve the maximum diversity order for a given number of transmit and receive antennas subject to the constraint of having a simple decoding algorithm. The classical mathematical framework of orthogonal designs is applied to construct space-time block codes. It is shown that space-time block codes constructed in this way only exist for few sporadic values of n. Subsequently, a generalization of orthogonal designs is shown to provide space-time block codes for both real and complex constellations for any number of transmit antennas. These codes achieve the maximum possible transmission rate for any number of transmit antennas using any arbitrary real constellation such as PAM. For an arbitrary complex constellation such as PSK and QAM, space-time block codes are designed that achieve 1/2 of the maximum possible transmission rate for any number of transmit antennas. For the specific cases of two, three, and four transmit antennas, space-time block codes are designed that achieve, respectively, all, 3/4, and 3/4 of maximum possible transmission rate using arbitrary complex constellations. The best tradeoff between the decoding delay and the number of transmit antennas is also computed and it is shown that many of the codes presented here are optimal in this sense as well.

7,348 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper finds the trade-off curve between R and d, assuming essentially perfect (“error-free”) transmission, and implies that there exists a Cs > 0, such that reliable transmission at rates up to Cs is possible in approximately perfect secrecy.
Abstract: We consider the situation in which digital data is to be reliably transmitted over a discrete, memoryless channel (dmc) that is subjected to a wire-tap at the receiver. We assume that the wire-tapper views the channel output via a second dmc). Encoding by the transmitter and decoding by the receiver are permitted. However, the code books used in these operations are assumed to be known by the wire-tapper. The designer attempts to build the encoder-decoder in such a way as to maximize the transmission rate R, and the equivocation d of the data as seen by the wire-tapper. In this paper, we find the trade-off curve between R and d, assuming essentially perfect (“error-free”) transmission. In particular, if d is equal to Hs, the entropy of the data source, then we consider that the transmission is accomplished in perfect secrecy. Our results imply that there exists a C s > 0, such that reliable transmission at rates up to C s is possible in approximately perfect secrecy.

7,129 citations

Book
01 Jan 1968
TL;DR: This chapter discusses Coding for Discrete Sources, Techniques for Coding and Decoding, and Source Coding with a Fidelity Criterion.
Abstract: Communication Systems and Information Theory. A Measure of Information. Coding for Discrete Sources. Discrete Memoryless Channels and Capacity. The Noisy-Channel Coding Theorem. Techniques for Coding and Decoding. Memoryless Channels with Discrete Time. Waveform Channels. Source Coding with a Fidelity Criterion. Index.

6,684 citations


Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Wireless
133.4K papers, 1.9M citations
88% related
Network packet
159.7K papers, 2.2M citations
88% related
Communication channel
137.4K papers, 1.7M citations
88% related
Wireless network
122.5K papers, 2.1M citations
88% related
Node (networking)
158.3K papers, 1.7M citations
84% related
Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20241
20231,605
20223,399
20211,691
20202,581
20192,942