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Deep-level transient spectroscopy

About: Deep-level transient spectroscopy is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4073 publications have been published within this topic receiving 58800 citations. The topic is also known as: DLTS.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Deep Level Transformer Spectroscopy (DLTS) as discussed by the authors is a high-frequency capacitance transient thermal scanning method useful for observing a wide variety of traps in semiconductors, which can display the spectrum of traps as positive and negative peaks on a flat baseline as a function of temperature.
Abstract: A new technique, deep‐level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), is introduced. This is a high‐frequency capacitance transient thermal scanning method useful for observing a wide variety of traps in semiconductors. The technique is capable of displaying the spectrum of traps in a crystal as positive and negative peaks on a flat baseline as a function of temperature. It is sensitive, rapid, and easy to analyze. The sign of the peak indicates whether the trap is near the conduction or valence band, the height of the peak is proportional to the trap concentration, and the position, in temperature, of the peak is uniquely determined by the thermal emission properties of the trap. In addition, one can measure the activation energy, concentration profile, and electron‐ and hole‐capture cross sections for each trap. The technique is presented with a simple theoretical analysis for the case of exponential capacitance transients. Various traps in GaAs are used as examples to illustrate certain features of the DLTS technique. Finally, a critical comparison is made with other recent capacitance techniques.

3,210 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, 15 different electron traps have been characterised in v.l.p. experiments and an accurate description of each level is given, and allows a fruitful comparison with fragmentary previous data.
Abstract: Fifteen different electron traps have been characterised in v.p.e., l.p.e., m.b.e. and bulk-grown GaAs from d.l.t.s. experiments. An accurate description of each level is given, and allows a fruitful comparison with fragmentary previous data. A catalogue of these electron traps is provided as a working tool.

654 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the merits of positron annihilation as compared to standard methods such as electron paramagnetic responance, infrared spectroscopy and deep level transient spectrograms as applied to various semiconductors are discussed.
Abstract: In this review will be discussed the merits of positron annihilation as compared to “standard” methods such as electron paramagnetic responance, infrared spectroscopy and deep level transient spectroscopy as applied to various semiconductors. In the case of silicon (only) the available detailed knowledge from the “standard” methods will be compared to the positron data addressing the association of lifetime values with specific defect structures such as monovacancies and divacancies. The importance of charged states (Fermi level position), shallow traps and impurity-vacancy complexes will be emphasized. Trapping cross-sections for various defects/charged states will be discussed in the context of electron paramagnetic resonance data.

525 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the light harvesting Sb2S3 surface on mesoporous-TiO2 in inorganic-organic heterojunction solar cells is sulfurized with thioacetamide (TA).
Abstract: The light-harvesting Sb2S3 surface on mesoporous-TiO2 in inorganic–organic heterojunction solar cells is sulfurized with thioacetamide (TA). The photovoltaic performances are compared before and after TA treatment, and the state of the Sb2S3 is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Although there are no differences in crystallinity and composition, the TA-treated solar cells exhibit significantly enhanced performance compared to pristine Sb2S3-sensitized solar cells. From DLTS analysis, the performance enhancement is mainly attributed to the extinction of trap sites, which are present at a density of (2–5) × 1014 cm−3 in Sb2S3, by TA treatment. Through such a simple treatment, the cell records an overall power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.5% through a metal mask under simulated illumination (AM 1.5G, 100 mW cm–2) with a very high open circuit voltage of 711.0 mV. This PCE is, thus far, the highest reported for fully solid-state chalcogenide-sensitized solar cells.

417 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors applied the drive-level capacitance profiling technique to ZnO/CdS/CuIn1−xGaxSe2/Mo solar cell devices.
Abstract: The drive-level capacitance profiling technique has been applied to ZnO/CdS/CuIn1−xGaxSe2/Mo solar cell devices, in order to study properties of defects in the CuIn1−xGaxSe2 film. Properties studied include the spatial uniformity, bulk defect response, carrier density, and light-induced metastable effects. These results indicate that previous estimates of carrier densities, from C–V profiling, may be significantly overestimated. In addition, a defect response previously thought to be located at the interface is observed to exist throughout the bulk material. Finally, an infrared light-soaking treatment is demonstrated to induce metastable changes in the bulk CuIn1−xGaxSe2 film. Hence, the drive-level capacitance profiling technique provides valuable insights into these films. Herein, the technique itself is fully explained, compared to other junction capacitance methods, and its utility is demonstrated using numerical simulation.

409 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202343
202290
202140
202053
201972
201877