Topic

# Deformation (engineering)

About: Deformation (engineering) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 41560 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 899757 citation(s). The topic is also known as: deformation.

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Brown University

^{1}Abstract: : An integral is exhibited which has the same value for all paths surrounding a class of notches in two-dimensional deformation fields of linear or non-linear elastic materials. The integral may be evaluated almost by inspection for a few notch configurations. Also, for materials of the elastic- plastic type (treated through a deformation rather than incremental formulation) , with a linear response to small stresses followed by non-linear yielding, the integral may be evaluated in terms of Irwin's stress intensity factor when yielding occurs on a scale small in comparison to notch size. On the other hand, the integral may be expressed in terms of the concentrated deformation field in the vicinity of the notch tip. This implies that some information on strain concentrations is obtainable without recourse to detailed non-linear analyses. Such an approach is exploited here. Applications are made to: Approximate estimates of strain concentrations at smooth ended notch tips in elastic and elastic-plastic materials, A general solution for crack tip separation in the Barenblatt-Dugdale crack model, leading to a proof of the identity of the Griffith theory and Barenblatt cohesive theory for elastic brittle fracture and to the inclusion of strain hardening behavior in the Dugdale model for plane stress yielding, and An approximate perfectly plastic plane strain analysis, based on the slip line theory, of contained plastic deformation at a crack tip and of crack blunting.

7,005 citations

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Abstract: A stress‐strain model is developed for concrete subjected to uniaxial compressive loading and confined by transverse reinforcement. The concrete section may contain any general type of confining steel: either spiral or circular hoops; or rectangular hoops with or without supplementary cross ties. These cross ties can have either equal or unequal confining stresses along each of the transverse axes. A single equation is used for the stress‐strain equation. The model allows for cyclic loading and includes the effect of strain rate. The influence of various types of confinement is taken into account by defining an effective lateral confining stress, which is dependent on the configuration of the transverse and longitudinal reinforcement. An energy balance approach is used to predict the longitudinal compressive strain in the concrete corresponding to first fracture of the transverse reinforcement by equating the strain energy capacity of the transverse reinforcement to the strain energy stored in the concret...

5,200 citations

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Abstract: Many two-phase alloys work-harden much faster than do pure single crystals. This is because the two phases are not equally easy to deform. One component (often dispersed as small particles) deforms less than the other, or not at all, so that gradients of deformation form with a wavelength equal to the spacing between the phases or particles. Such alloys are ‘plastically non-homogeneous’, because gradients of plastic deformation are imposed by the microstructure. Dislocations are stored in them to accommodate the deformation gradients, and so allow compatible deformation of the two phases. We call these ‘geometrically-necessary’ dislocations to distinguish them from the ‘statistically-stored’ dislocations which accumulate in pure crystals during straining and are responsible for the normal 3-stage hardening. Polycrystals of pure metals are also plastically non-homogeneous. The density and arrangement of the geometrically-necessary dislocations can be calculated fairly exactly and checked by electr...

3,160 citations

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27 Sep 1994

Abstract: Dynamic Deformation and Waves. Elastic Waves. Plastic Waves. Shock Waves. Shock Waves: Equations of State. Differential Form of Conservation Equations and Numerical Solutions to More Complex Problems. Shock Wave Attenuation, Interaction, and Reflection. Shock Wave-Induced Phase Transformations and Chemical Changes. Explosive-Material Interactions. Detonation. Experimental Techniques: Diagnostic Tools. Experimental Techniques: Methods to Produce Dynamic Deformation. Plastic Deformation at High Strain Rates. Plastic Deformation in Shock Waves. Shear Bands (Thermoplastic Shear Instabilities). Dynamic Fracture. Applications. Indexes.

2,427 citations

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TL;DR: This work examined a five-element high-entropy alloy, CrMnFeCoNi, which forms a single-phase face-centered cubic solid solution, and found it to have exceptional damage tolerance with tensile strengths above 1 GPa and fracture toughness values exceeding 200 MPa·m1/2.

Abstract: High-entropy alloys are equiatomic, multi-element systems that can crystallize as a single phase, despite containing multiple elements with different crystal structures. A rationale for this is that the configurational entropy contribution to the total free energy in alloys with five or more major elements may stabilize the solid-solution state relative to multiphase microstructures. We examined a five-element high-entropy alloy, CrMnFeCoNi, which forms a single-phase face-centered cubic solid solution, and found it to have exceptional damage tolerance with tensile strengths above 1 GPa and fracture toughness values exceeding 200 MPa·m(1/2). Furthermore, its mechanical properties actually improve at cryogenic temperatures; we attribute this to a transition from planar-slip dislocation activity at room temperature to deformation by mechanical nanotwinning with decreasing temperature, which results in continuous steady strain hardening.

2,411 citations