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Deformation (meteorology)

About: Deformation (meteorology) is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 60304 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 558701 citation(s).

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Abstract: A unified treatment of the mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media is presented, and some new results and generalizations are derived. The writer's earlier theory of deformation of porous media derived from general principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is applied. The fluid‐solid medium is treated as a complex physical‐chemical system with resultant relaxation and viscoelastic properties of a very general nature. Specific relaxation models are discussed, and the general applicability of a correspondence principle is further emphasized. The theory of acoustic propagation is extended to include anisotropic media, solid dissipation, and other relaxation effects. Some typical examples of sources of dissipation other than fluid viscosity are considered.

3,158 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: As a practical and effective tool for quantitative in-plane deformation measurement of a planar object surface, two-dimensional digital image correlation (2D DIC) is now widely accepted and commonly used in the field of experimental mechanics. It directly provides full-field displacements to sub-pixel accuracy and full-field strains by comparing the digital images of a test object surface acquired before and after deformation. In this review, methodologies of the 2D DIC technique for displacement field measurement and strain field estimation are systematically reviewed and discussed. Detailed analyses of the measurement accuracy considering the influences of both experimental conditions and algorithm details are provided. Measures for achieving high accuracy deformation measurement using the 2D DIC technique are also recommended. Since microscale and nanoscale deformation measurement can easily be realized by combining the 2D DIC technique with high-spatial-resolution microscopes, the 2D DIC technique should find more applications in broad areas.

2,125 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The static deformation of an elastic half-space by surface pressure is reviewed. A brief mention is made of methods for solving the problem when the medium is plane stratified, but the major emphasis is on the solution for spherical, radially stratified, gravitating earth models. Love-number calculations are outlined, and from the Love numbers, Green's functions are formed for the surface mass-load boundary-value problem. Tables of mass-load Green's functions, computed for realistic earth models, are given, so that the displacements, tilts, accelerations, and strains at the earth's surface caused by any static load can be found by evaluating a convolution integral over the loaded region.

1,464 citations

01 Jan 1967

1,439 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: During the deformation of rock in laboratory experiments, small cracking events, i.e., microfractures, occur which radiate elastic waves in a manner similar to earthquakes. These radiations were detected during uniaxial and triaxial compression tests and their frequency-magnitude relation studied. They were found to obey the Gutenberg and Richter relation log N = a + b M Where N is the number of events which occurred of magnitude M , and a and b constants. The dependence of the parameter b on rock type, stress, and confining pressure was studied. It was found to depend primarily on stress, in a characteristic way. The frequency-magnitude relation for events which accompanied frictional sliding and deformation of a ductile rock was found to have a much higher b value than that observed in brittle rock. The Gutenberg and Richter formulation of the frequency-magnitude relation was derived from a statistical model of rock and crustal deformation. This analysis demonstrates the basis of similarity between rock deformation experiments in the laboratory and deformation of the crust.

1,253 citations

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