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Dehydroascorbic acid

About: Dehydroascorbic acid is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1531 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 55457 citation(s). The topic is also known as: dehydroascorbate & DHAA.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Hiroyasu Tsukaguchi1, Taro Tokui1, Bryan Mackenzie1, Urs V. Berger1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
06 May 1999-Nature
TL;DR: It is found that SVCT1 and SVCT2 each mediate concentrative, high-affinity L-ascorbic acid transport that is stereospecific and is driven by the Na+ electrochemical gradient.

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Abstract: Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is essential for many enzymatic reactions, in which it serves to maintain prosthetic metal ions in their reduced forms (for example, Fe2+, Cu+), and for scavenging free radicals in order to protect tissues from oxidative damage. The facilitative sugar transporters of the GLUT type can transport the oxidized form of the vitamin, dehydroascorbic acid, but these transporters are unlikely to allow significant physiological amounts of vitamin C to be taken up in the presence of normal glucose concentrations, because the vitamin is present in plasma essentially only in its reduced form. Here we describe the isolation of two L-ascorbic acid transporters, SVCT1 and SVCT2, from rat complementary DNA libraries, as the first step in investigating the importance of L-ascorbic acid transport in regulating the supply and metabolism of vitamin C. We find that SVCT1 and SVCT2 each mediate concentrative, high-affinity L-ascorbic acid transport that is stereospecific and is driven by the Na+ electrochemical gradient. Despite their close sequence homology and similar functions, the two isoforms of the transporter are discretely distributed: SVCT1 is mainly confined to epithelial systems (intestine, kidney, liver), whereas SVCT2 serves a host of metabolically active cells and specialized tissues in the brain, eye and other organs.

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778 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: No evidence for a role of oxidized glutathione or dehydroascorbate in the dark-deactivation of fructose bisphosphatase could be obtained, but addition of Paraquat to illuminated chloroplasts caused a rapid oxidation of reduced glutathion and ascorbate, and apparent loss of dehydroASCorbate.

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Abstract: The stroma of spinach chloroplasts contains ascorbic acid and glutathione at millimolar concentrations. [Reduced glutathione]/[oxidized glutathione] and [ascorbate]/[dehydroascorbate] ratios are high under both light and dark conditions and no evidence for a role of oxidized glutathione or dehydroascorbate in the dark-deactivation of fructose bisphosphatase could be obtained. Addition of H2O2 to chloroplasts in the dark decreases the above ratios, an effect that is reversed on illumination. Addition of Paraquat to illuminated chloroplasts caused a rapid oxidation of reduced glutathione and ascorbate, and apparent loss of dehydroascorbate. Paraquat rapidly inactivated fructose bisphosphatase activity, as assayed under physiological conditions.

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721 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1999-Food Chemistry
Abstract: The TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) assay is based on scavenging of 2,2'-azinobis-(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) radical anions (ABTS(.-)). In this report we describe a modification based on pre-generation of the ABTS radical anions with a thermolabile azo compound, 2,2'-azobis- (2-amidinopropane)HCl (ABAP). This modification makes the assay less susceptible to artefacts, e.g. influence on the radical generation process. For most antioxidants tested, a biphasic reaction pattern was seen, i.e. a fast and slow scavenging rate. We evaluated application of the assay with both lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds with antioxidant capacity. Several organic solvents, compatible with water, were tested with α-tocopherol, quercetin and β-carotene. It was found that the TEACs differed in various solvents. Under standardized conditions additivity of TEACs obtained from individual antioxidants could be demonstrated. This might enable application of the assay for the identification of 'unknown' antioxidants. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. Chemicals/CAS: 2,2' azobis(2 amidinopropane), 13217-66-8; alpha tocopherol, 1406-18-4, 1406-70-8, 52225-20-4, 58-95-7, 59-02-9; ascorbic acid, 134-03-2, 15421-15-5, 50-81-7; aurantiin, 10236-47-2, 12619-61-3, 29658-83-1, 82350-96-7; beta carotene, 7235-40-7; cryptoxanthin, 472-70-8; dehydroascorbic acid, 33124-69-5, 490-83-5; hesperidin, 520-26-3; lycopene, 502-65-8; quercetin, 117-39-5; trolox C, 56305-04-5; zeaxanthin, 144-68-3

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648 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Fiona E. Harrison1, James M. May1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Ascorbate is proposed as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic transmission and related behaviors, posited to have potential therapeutic roles against ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington's disease.

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Abstract: Ascorbate (vitamin C) is a vital antioxidant molecule in the brain. However, it also has a number of other important functions, participating as a co-factor in several enzyme reactions including catecholamine synthesis, collagen production and regulation of HIF-1α. Ascorbate is transported into the brain and neurons via the Sodium-dependent Vitamin C Transporter-2 (SVCT2), which causes accumulation of ascorbate within cells against a concentration gradient. Dehydroascorbic acid, the oxidized form of ascorbate, is transported via glucose transporters of the GLUT family. Once in cells, it is rapidly reduced to ascorbate. The highest concentrations of ascorbate in the body are found in the brain and neuroendocrine tissues such as adrenal, although the brain is the most difficult organ to deplete of ascorbate. Combined with regional asymmetry in ascorbate distribution within different brain areas, these facts suggest an important role for ascorbate in the brain. Ascorbate is proposed as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and GABAergic transmission and related behaviors. Neurodegenerative diseases typically involve high levels of oxidative stress and thus ascorbate has been posited to have potential therapeutic roles against ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntingdon's disease.

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479 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202114
202030
201919
201815
201717
201620

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

James M. May

14 papers, 992 citations

Juan Carlos Vera

12 papers, 1.3K citations

Mara Fiorani

11 papers, 289 citations

Maria Speranza Desole

10 papers, 253 citations

Mark Levine

9 papers, 1K citations