Topic

# Density matrix

About: Density matrix is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7507 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 203509 citation(s).

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TL;DR: A generalization of the numerical renormalization-group procedure used first by Wilson for the Kondo problem is presented and it is shown that this formulation is optimal in a certain sense.

Abstract: A generalization of the numerical renormalization-group procedure used first by Wilson for the Kondo problem is presented. It is shown that this formulation is optimal in a certain sense. As a demonstration of the effectiveness of this approach, results from numerical real-space renormalization-group calculations for Heisenberg chains are presented.

4,694 citations

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Abstract: A density matrix formulation of the super-CI MCSCF method is presented. The MC expansion is assumed to be complete in an active subset of the orbital space, and the corresponding CI secular problem is solved by a direct scheme using the unitary group approach. With a density matrix formulation the orbital optimization step becomes independent of the size of the CI expansion. It is possible to formulate the super-CI in terms of density matrices defined only in the small active subspace; the doubly occupied orbitals (the inactive subspace) do not enter. Further, in the unitary group formalism it is straightforward and simple to obtain the necessary density matrices from the symbolic formula list. It then becomes possible to treat very long MC expansions, the largest so far comprising 726 configurations. The method is demonstrated in a calculation of the potential curves for the three lowest states (1Σ+g, 3Σ+u and 3Πg) of the N2 molecule, using a medium-sized gaussian basis set. Seven active orbitals were used yielding the following results: De: 8.76 (9.90), 2.43 (3.68) and 3.39 (4.90) eV; re: 1.108 (1.098), 1.309 (1.287) and 1.230 (1.213) A; ωe: 2333 (2359), 1385 (1461) and 1680 (1733) cm−1, for the three states (experimental values within parentheses). The results of these calculations indicate that it is important to consider not only the dissociation limit but also the united atom limit in partitioning the occupied orbital space into an active and an inactive part.

2,821 citations

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Abstract: In order to calculate the average value of a physical quantity containing also many-particle interactions in a system of $N$ antisymmetric particles, a set of generalized density matrices are defined. In order to permit the investigation of the same physical situation in two complementary spaces, the Hermitean density matrix of order $k$ has two sets of indices of each $k$ variables, and it is further antisymmetric in each set of these indices.Every normalizable antisymmetric wave function may be expanded in a series of determinants of order $N$ over all ordered configurations formed from a basic complete set of one-particle functions ${\ensuremath{\psi}}_{k}$, which gives a representation of the wave function and its density matrices also in the discrete $k$-space. The coefficients in an expansion of an eigenfunction to a particular operator may be determined by the variation principle, leading to the ordinary secular equation of the method of configurational interaction. It is shown that the first-order density matrix may be brought to diagonal form, which defines the "natural spin-orbitals" associated with the system. The situation is then partly characterized by the corresponding occupation numbers, which are shown to lie between 0 and 1 and to assume the value 1, only if the corresponding spin-orbital occurs in all configurations necessary for describing the situation. If the system has exactly $N$ spin-orbitals which are fully occupied, the total wave function may be reduced to a single Slater determinant. However, due to the mutual interaction between the particles, this limiting case is never physically realized, but the introduction of natural spin-orbitals leads then instead to a configurational expansion of most rapid convergence.In case the basic set is of finite order $M$, the best choice of this set is determined by a form of extended Hartree-Fock equations. It is shown that, in this case, the natural spin-orbitals approximately fulfill some equations previously proposed by Slater.

2,590 citations

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TL;DR: A formulation of numerical real-space renormalization groups for quantum many-body problems is presented and several algorithms utilizing this formulation are outlined, which can be applied to almost any one-dimensional quantum lattice system, and can provide a wide variety of static properties.

Abstract: A formulation of numerical real-space renormalization groups for quantum many-body problems is presented and several algorithms utilizing this formulation are outlined. The methods are presented and demonstrated using S=1/2 and S=1 Heisenberg chains as test cases. The key idea of the formulation is that rather than keep the lowest-lying eigenstates of the Hamiltonian in forming a new effective Hamiltonian of a block of sites, one should keep the most significant eigenstates of the block density matrix, obtained from diagonalizing the Hamiltonian of a larger section of the lattice which includes the block. This approach is much more accurate than the standard approach; for example, energies for the S=1 Heisenberg chain can be obtained to an accuracy of at least ${10}^{\mathrm{\ensuremath{-}}9}$. The method can be applied to almost any one-dimensional quantum lattice system, and can provide a wide variety of static properties.

2,191 citations

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01 Aug 1981

Abstract: Basic Concepts. General Density Matrix Theory. Coupled Systems. Irreducible Components of the Density Matrix. Radiation from Polarized Atoms: Quantum Beats. Some Applications. The Role of Orientation and Alignment in Molecular Processes. Quantum Theory of Relaxation. Appendix A: The Direct Product. Appendix B: State Multipoles for Coupled Systems. Appendix C: Formulas from Angular Momentum Theory. Appendix D: The Efficiency of a Measuring Device. Appendix E: The Scattering and Transition Operators. Index.

1,987 citations