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# Descriptive statistics

About: Descriptive statistics is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9985 publications have been published within this topic receiving 125580 citations.

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01 Jan 1984

TL;DR: This chapter discusses research Designs, Data Collection Techniques, and Research Reports, and Guidelines for Research Proposals, as well as qualitative and quantitative analysis of research findings.

Abstract: I. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 1. Introduction to the Field of Educational Research. 2. Research Designs, Data Collection Techniques, and Research Reports. 3. Research Problems: Statements, Questions, and Hypotheses. 4. Literature Review. II. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS. 5. Introduction to Designing Quantitative Research. 6. Descriptive Statistics. 7. Data Collection Techniques. 8. Nonexperimental Research Designs. 9. Experimental and Single-Subject Research Designs. 10. Inferential Statistics. III. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS. 11. Introduction to Designing Qualitative Research. 12. Ethnographic Research. 13. Analytical Research: Historical and Legal Studies. 14. Qualitative Data Analysis. IV. EVALUATION AND POLICY RESEARCH DESIGNS AND METHODS. 15. Evaluation Research and Policy Analysis. V. COMMUNICATION OF EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH. 16. Guidelines for Research Proposals.

4,069 citations

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01 Jan 1970

TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the role of research in knowledge science, and the meaning of research, as well as the roles of theory, operational definitions of variables, and data analysis and interpretation.

Abstract: Each chapter concludes with "Summary," "Exercises" and "References." Preface I. INTRODUCTION TO EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH: DEFINITIONS, RESEARCH PROBLEMS, PROPOSALS, AND REPORT WRITING. 1. The Meaning of Research. Why Should I Study Research? The Search for Knowledge Science The Role of Theory Operational Definitions of Variables The Hypothesis The Research Hypothesis The Null Hypothesis (Ho) Populations Sampling Randomness The Simple Random Sample Random Numbers The Systematic Sample The Stratified Random Sample The Area or Cluster Sample Nonprobability Samples Sample Size Purposes of Research Fundamental or Basic Research Applied Research Action Research Assessment, Evaluation, and Descriptive Research Types of Educational Research 2. Selecting a Problem and Preparing a Research Proposal. The Academic Research Problem Levels of Research Projects Sources of Problems Evaluating the Problem Using the Library Finding Related Literature References and Bibliography Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials The Research Proposal The First Research Project Submitting a Research Proposal to a Funding Agency Thesis Proposal Ethics in Human Experimentation History of Research Ethics Regulations From Regulations to Practice. 3. The Research Report. Style Manuals Format of the Research Report Main Body of the Report References and Appendices The Thesis or Dissertation Style of Writing Reference Form Pagination Tables Figures The Line Graph The Bar Graph or Chart The Circle, Pie, or Sector Chart Maps Organization Charts Evaluating a Research Report II. RESEARCH METHODS. 4. Historical Research. Purpose of Histroical Reseach on American Education History and Science Historical Generalization The Historical Hypothesis Hypotheses in Educational Historical Research Difficulties Encountered in Historical Research Sources of Data Primary Sources of Data Primary Sources of Educational Data Secondary Sources of Data Historical Criticism External Criticism Internal Criticism Examples of Topics for Educational Historical Study Writing the Historical Report 5. Descriptive Studies: Assessment, Evaluation, and Research. Assessment Studies The Survey Social Surveys Public Opinion Surveys National Center for Education Statistics International Assessment Activity Analysis Trend Studies Evaluation Studies School Surveys Program Evaluation Assessment and Evaluation in Problem Solving Descriptive Research Causal Comparative Research Correlational Research Follow-up Research Other Descriptive Research Replication and Secondary Analysis The Post Hoc Fallacy 6. Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research. Early Experimentation Experimental and Control Groups Variables Independent and Dependent Variables Confounding Variables Controlling Extraneous Variables Experimental Validity Threats to Internal Experimental Validity Threats to External Experimental Validity Experimental Design Pre-experimental Designs True Experimental Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Factorial Designs 7. Single-Subject Experimental Research. General Procedures Repeated Measurement Baselines Manipulating Variables Length of Phases Transfer of Training and Response Maintenance Assessment Target Behavior Data Collection Strategies Basic Designs A-B-A-B Designs Multiple Baseline Designs Other Designs Evaluating Data 8. Qualitative Research. A Qualitative Research Model. Themes of Qualitative Research Research Questions Theoretical Traditions Research Strategies Document or Content Analysis The Case Study Ethnographic Studies Data Collection Techniques Observations Interviews Review of Documents Other Qualitative Data Collection Techniques Data Analysis and Interpretation Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research 9. Methods and Tools of Research. Reliability and Validity of Research Tools Quantitative Studies Qualitative Studies Psychological and Educational Tests and Inventories Qualities of a Good Test and Inventory Validity Reliability Economy Interest Types of Tests and Inventories Achievement Tests Aptitude Tests Interest Inventories Personality Inventories Projective Devices Observation Validity and Reliability of Observation Recording Observations Systematizing Data Collection Characteristics of Good Observation Inquiry Forms: The Questionnaire Closed Form The Open Form Improving Questionnaire Items Characteristics of a Good Questionnaire Preparing and Administering the Questionnaire A Sample Questionnaire Validity and Reliability of Questionnaires Inquiry Forms: The Opinionnaire Thurstone Technique Likert Method Semantic Differential The Interview Validity and Reliability of the Interview Q Methodology Social Scaling Sociometry Scoring Sociometric Choices The Sociogram "Guess-who" Technique Social-distance Scale Organization of Data Collection Outside Criteria for Comparison Limitations and Sources of Error III. DATA ANALYSIS. 10. Descriptive Data Analysis. What Is Statistics? Parametric and Nonparametric Data Descriptive and Inferential Analysis The Organization of Data Grouped Data Distributions Statistical Measures Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Spread or Dispersion Normal Distribution Nonnormal Distributions Interpreting the Normal Probability Distribution Practical Applications of the Normal Curve Measures of Relative Position: Standard Scores The Z Score (Z) The T Score (T) The College Board Score (ZCb). Stanines Percentile Rank. Measures of Relationship Pearson's Product-Moment Coefficient of Correlation (r) Rank Order Correlation (r) Phi Correlation Coefficient (f) Interpretation of a Correlation Coefficient Outliers Misinterpretation of the Coefficient of Correlation Prediction Standard Error of Estimate A Note of Caution 11. Inferential Data Analysis. Statistical Inference The Central Limit Theorem Parametric Tests Testing Statistical Significance The Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Independent Groups The Null Hypothesis (Ho) The Level of Significance Decision Making Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Tests of Significance Degrees of Freedom A One-Sample Z Test Student's Distribution (t) Significance of the Difference between Two Small Sample Independent Means Homogeneity of Variances Significance of the Difference between the Means of Two Matched or correlated Groups (Nonindependent Samples) Statistical Significance of a Coefficient of correlation Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) and Partial Correlation Multiple Regression and Correlation Nonparametric Tests The Chi Square Test (c2) The Mann-Whitney Test Outliers and Missing Data 12. Computer Data Analysis. The Computer Data Organization Computer Analysis of Data Descriptive Statistics Graphs Multiple Regression ANOVA Results from Analyses of Appendix B Data Statistics on the World Wide Web Qualitative Analyses Using Computer Software Appendix A: Statistical Formulas and Symbols. Appendix B: Sample Data. Appendix C: Percentage of Area Lying Between the Mean and Successive Standard Deviation Units Under the Normal Curve. Appendix D: Critical Values for Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation (r). Appendix E: Critical Values of Student's Distribution (t). Appendix F: Abridged Table of Critical Values for Chi Square. Appendix G: Critical Values of the F Distribution. Appendix H: Research Report Evaluation. Appendix I: Answers to Statistics Exercises.

3,598 citations

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01 Jan 1974

TL;DR: In this article, the Chi-square distribution and the analysis of Frequencies Nonparametric and Distribution-Free Statistics Vital Statistics are presented. But they do not consider the correlation analysis.

Abstract: Introduction to Biostatistics Descriptive Statistics Some Basic Probability Concepts Probability Distributions Some Important Sampling Distributions Estimation Hypothesis Testing Analysis of Variance Simple Linear Regression and Correlation Multiple Regression and Correlation Regression Analysis - Some Additional Techniques The Chi-Square Distribution and the Analysis of Frequencies Nonparametric and Distribution-Free Statistics Vital Statistics.

2,833 citations

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01 Jan 1973

TL;DR: The Logic of Survey Sampling and the Logic of Probability Sampling, a comparison of Survey and Other Methods, and the Ethics of Survey Research, a review of social science research in the 21st Century.

Abstract: PART I. THE SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT OF SURVEY RESEARCH. 1. The Logic of Science. The Traditional Perspective. The Debunking of Science. Science in Practice. What is Science? 2. Science and Social Science. The Search for Social Regularities. The Characteristics of Social Science. Methods of Social Scientific Research. 3. Survey Research as a Method of Social Science. A Brief History of Survey Research. The Scientific Characteristics of Survey Research. A Comparison of Survey and Other Methods. Is Survey Research Really Scientific? PART II. SURVEY RESEARCH DESIGN. 4. Types of Study Design. Purposes of Survey Research. Units of Analysis. Basic Survey Designs. Variations on Basic Designs. Choosing the Appropriate Design. 5. The Logic of Survey Sampling. The Logic of Probability Sampling. Sampling Concepts and Terminology. Probability Sampling Theory and Sampling. Distribution. Populations and Sampling Frames. Types of Sampling Designs. Disproportionate Sampling and Weighting. Nonprobability Sampling. Nonsurvey Uses of Sampling Methods. 6. Examples of Sample Designs. Sampling University Students. Sampling Medical School Faculty. Sampling Episcopal Churchwomen. Sampling Oakland Households. 7. Conceptualization and Instrument Design. Logic of Conceptualization. An Operationalization Framework. Types of Data. Levels of Measurement. Guides to Question Construction. Measurement Quality. General Questionnaire Format. Ordering Questions in a Questionnaire. Instructions. Reproducing the Questionnaire. 8. Index and Scale Construction. Indexes Versus Scales. Index Construction. Scale Construction. Typologies. PART III. DATA COLLECTION. 9. Self-Administered Questionnaires. Mail Distribution and Return. Postal Options and Relative Costs. Monitoring Returns. Follow-up Mailings. Acceptable Response Rates. A Case Study. 10. Interview Surveys. Imporance of Interviewer. General Rules for Interviewing. Interviewer Training. The Interviewing Operation. 11. Data Processing. Computers in Survey Research. Coding. Codebook Construction. Coding and Data Entry Options. Precoding for Data Entry. Data Cleaning. 12. Pretests and Pilot Studies. Conducting Pretests. Conducting Pilot Studies. Evaluating Pretests and Pilot Studies. PART IV. SURVEY RESEARCH ANALYSIS. 13. The Logic of Measurement and Association. The Traditional Image. The Interchangeability of Indexes. Implications. 14. Constructing and Understanding Tables. Univariate Analysis. Subgroup Descriptions. Bivariate Analysis. Multivariate Analysis. 15. The Elaboration Model. History of the Elaboration Model. The Elaboration Paradigm. Elaboration and Ex Post Facto Hypothesizing. 16. Social Statistics. Descriptive Statistics. Inferential Statistics. 17. Advanced Multivariate Techniques. Regression Analysis. Path Analysis. Factor Analysis. Analysis of Variance. Discriminant Analysis. Log-Linear Models. 18. The Reporting of Survey Research. Some Basic Considerations. Organization of the Reports. Guidelines for Reporting Analysis. PART V. SURVEY RESEARCH IN SOCIAL CONTEXT. 19. The Ethics of Survey Research. Voluntary Participation. No Harm to Respondents. Anonymity and Confidentiality. Identifying Purpose and Sponsor. Analysis and Reporting. A Professional Code of Ethics. Ethics -- Relevant Illustrations. 20. The Informed Survey Research Consumer. Research Design. Measurement. Sampling. Data Analysis. Data Reporting. APPENDICES. Appendix A. Table of Random Numbers. Appendix B. Estimated Sampling Error for a Binomial (95% Confidence Level). Appendix C. Distribution of Chi Square. Appendix D. Normal Curve Areas.

2,364 citations

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23 Nov 1987

TL;DR: The design of experiments, analysis of the means of small samples using the t-c Distribution, and selection of the statistical method for clinical measurement and the structure of human populations are reviewed.

Abstract: Introduction The design of experiments Sampling and observational studies Summarizing data Presenting data Probability The Normal Distribution Estimation, standard error, and confidence intervals Significance tests Analysis of the means of small samples using the t-c Distribution Choosing the statistical method Clinical measurement Mortality statistics and the structure of human populations Solutions to exercises.

2,245 citations