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Dicentric chromosome

About: Dicentric chromosome is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1353 publications have been published within this topic receiving 38472 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
26 Feb 1999-Science
TL;DR: In some cells, telomere shortening may signal cell death rather than senescence, and it is shown that this suppression of apoptosis involves the telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2).
Abstract: Although broken chromosomes can induce apoptosis, natural chromosome ends (telomeres) do not trigger this response. It is shown that this suppression of apoptosis involves the telomeric-repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2). Inhibition of TRF2 resulted in apoptosis in a subset of mammalian cell types. The response was mediated by p53 and the ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) kinase, consistent with activation of a DNA damage checkpoint. Apoptosis was not due to rupture of dicentric chromosomes formed by end-to-end fusion, indicating that telomeres lacking TRF2 directly signal apoptosis, possibly because they resemble damaged DNA. Thus, in some cells, telomere shortening may signal cell death rather than senescence.

1,116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The wealth of knowledge currently available that best explains the formation of these important nuclear anomalies that are commonly seen in cancer and are indicative of genome damage events that could increase the risk of developmental and degenerative diseases are summarized.
Abstract: Micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies such as nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) are biomarkers of genotoxic events and chromosomal instability. These genome damage events can be measured simultaneously in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome (CBMNcyt) assay. The molecular mechanisms leading to these events have been investigated over the past two decades using molecular probes and genetically engineered cells. In this brief review, we summarise the wealth of knowledge currently available that best explains the formation of these important nuclear anomalies that are commonly seen in cancer and are indicative of genome damage events that could increase the risk of developmental and degenerative diseases. MN can originate during anaphase from lagging acentric chromosome or chromatid fragments caused by misrepair of DNA breaks or unrepaired DNA breaks. Malsegregation of whole chromosomes at anaphase may also lead to MN formation as a result of hypomethylation of repeat sequences in centromeric and pericentromeric DNA, defects in kinetochore proteins or assembly, dysfunctional spindle and defective anaphase checkpoint genes. NPB originate from dicentric chromosomes, which may occur due to misrepair of DNA breaks, telomere end fusions, and could also be observed when defective separation of sister chromatids at anaphase occurs due to failure of decatenation. NBUD represent the process of elimination of amplified DNA, DNA repair complexes and possibly excess chromosomes from aneuploid cells.

982 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
17 Dec 2015-Cell
TL;DR: It is proposed that chromothripsis in human cancer may arise through TREX1-mediated fragmentation of dicentric chromosomes formed in telomere crisis through the generation of the ssDNA and the resolution of the chromatin bridges.

530 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The CBMN assay has in fact evolved into a "cytome" method for measuring comprehensively chromosomal instability phenotype and altered cellular viability caused by genetic defects and/or nutrional deficiencies and/ or exogenous genotoxins thus opening up an exciting future for the use of this methodology in the emerging fields of nutrigenomics and toxicogenomics and their combinations.
Abstract: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay was originally developed as an ideal system for measuring micronuclei (MNi) however it can also be used to measure nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), nuclear buds (NBUDs), cell death (necrosis or apoptosis) and nuclear division rate. Current evidence suggests that (a) NPBs originate from dicentric chromosomes in which the centromeres have been pulled to the opposite poles of the cell at anaphase and are therefore indicative of DNA mis-repair, chromosome rearrangement or telomere end-fusions, (b) NPBs may break to form MNi, (c) the nuclear budding process is the mechanism by which cells remove amplified and/or excess DNA and is therefore a marker of gene amplification and/or altered gene dosage, (d) cell cycle checkpoint defects result in micronucleus formation and (e) hypomethylation of DNA, induced nutritionally or by inhibition of DNA methyl transferase can lead to micronucleus formation either via chromosome loss or chromosome breakage. The strong correlation between micronucleus formation, nuclear budding and NPBs (r=0.75-0.77, P<0.001) induced by either folic acid deficiency or exposure to ionising radiation is supportive of the hypothesis that folic acid deficiency and/or ionising radiation cause genomic instability and gene amplification by the initiation of breakage-fusion-bridge cycles. In its comprehensive mode, the CBMN assay measures all cells including necrotic and apoptotic cells as well as number of nuclei per cell to provide a measure of cytotoxicity and mitotic activity. The CBMN assay has in fact evolved into a "cytome" method for measuring comprehensively chromosomal instability phenotype and altered cellular viability caused by genetic defects and/or nutrional deficiencies and/or exogenous genotoxins thus opening up an exciting future for the use of this methodology in the emerging fields of nutrigenomics and toxicogenomics and their combinations.

440 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Genetic evidence that Mif2 encodes a centromere protein is provided and it is found that mutations in MIF2 stabilize dicentric minichromosomes and confer high instability to chromosomes that bear a cis-acting mutation in element I of the yeast centromeric DNA (CDEI).
Abstract: The MIF2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been implicated in mitosis. Here we provide genetic evidence that MIF2 encodes a centromere protein. Specifically, we found that mutations in MIF2 stabilize dicentric minichromosomes and confer high instability (i.e., a synthetic acentric phenotype) to chromosomes that bear a cis-acting mutation in element I of the yeast centromeric DNA (CDEI). Similarly, we observed synthetic phenotypes between mutations in MIF2 and trans-acting mutations in three known yeast centromere protein genes-CEP1/CBF1/CPF1, NDC10/CBF2, and CEP3/CBF3B. In addition, the mif2 temperature-sensitive phenotype can be partially rescued by increased dosage of CEP1. Synthetic lethal interactions between a cep1 null mutation and mutations in either NDC10 or CEP3 were also detected. Taken together, these data suggest that the Mif2 protein interacts with Cep1p at the centromere and that the yeast centromere indeed exists as a higher order protein-DNA complex. The Mif2 and Cep1 proteins contain motifs of known transcription factors, suggesting that assembly of the yeast centromere is analogous to that of eukaryotic enhancers and origins of replication. We also show that the predicted Mif2 protein shares two short regions of homology with the mammalian centromere Ag CENP-C and that two temperature-sensitive mutations in MIF2 lie within these regions. These results provide evidence for structural conservation between yeast and mammalian centromeres.

435 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202323
202251
202116
202023
201920
201820