Topic

# Difference-map algorithm

About: Difference-map algorithm is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1659 publications have been published within this topic receiving 50852 citations.

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TL;DR: A generic message-passing algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, that operates in a factor graph, that computes-either exactly or approximately-various marginal functions derived from the global function.

Abstract: Algorithms that must deal with complicated global functions of many variables often exploit the manner in which the given functions factor as a product of "local" functions, each of which depends on a subset of the variables. Such a factorization can be visualized with a bipartite graph that we call a factor graph, In this tutorial paper, we present a generic message-passing algorithm, the sum-product algorithm, that operates in a factor graph. Following a single, simple computational rule, the sum-product algorithm computes-either exactly or approximately-various marginal functions derived from the global function. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can be derived as specific instances of the sum-product algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's (1988) belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms.

6,637 citations

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NEC

^{1}TL;DR: This paper reports on an optimum dynamic progxamming (DP) based time-normalization algorithm for spoken word recognition, in which the warping function slope is restricted so as to improve discrimination between words in different categories.

Abstract: This paper reports on an optimum dynamic progxamming (DP) based time-normalization algorithm for spoken word recognition. First, a general principle of time-normalization is given using time-warping function. Then, two time-normalized distance definitions, called symmetric and asymmetric forms, are derived from the principle. These two forms are compared with each other through theoretical discussions and experimental studies. The symmetric form algorithm superiority is established. A new technique, called slope constraint, is successfully introduced, in which the warping function slope is restricted so as to improve discrimination between words in different categories. The effective slope constraint characteristic is qualitatively analyzed, and the optimum slope constraint condition is determined through experiments. The optimized algorithm is then extensively subjected to experimental comparison with various DP-algorithms, previously applied to spoken word recognition by different research groups. The experiment shows that the present algorithm gives no more than about two-thirds errors, even compared to the best conventional algorithm.

5,906 citations

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TL;DR: This work presents a simple and efficient implementation of Lloyd's k-means clustering algorithm, which it calls the filtering algorithm, and establishes the practical efficiency of the algorithm's running time.

Abstract: In k-means clustering, we are given a set of n data points in d-dimensional space R/sup d/ and an integer k and the problem is to determine a set of k points in Rd, called centers, so as to minimize the mean squared distance from each data point to its nearest center. A popular heuristic for k-means clustering is Lloyd's (1982) algorithm. We present a simple and efficient implementation of Lloyd's k-means clustering algorithm, which we call the filtering algorithm. This algorithm is easy to implement, requiring a kd-tree as the only major data structure. We establish the practical efficiency of the filtering algorithm in two ways. First, we present a data-sensitive analysis of the algorithm's running time, which shows that the algorithm runs faster as the separation between clusters increases. Second, we present a number of empirical studies both on synthetically generated data and on real data sets from applications in color quantization, data compression, and image segmentation.

5,288 citations

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TL;DR: Iterative algorithms for phase retrieval from intensity data are compared to gradient search methods and it is shown that both the error-reduction algorithm for the problem of a single intensity measurement and the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm forThe problem of two intensity measurements converge.

Abstract: Iterative algorithms for phase retrieval from intensity data are compared to gradient search methods. Both the problem of phase retrieval from two intensity measurements (in electron microscopy or wave front sensing) and the problem of phase retrieval from a single intensity measurement plus a non-negativity constraint (in astronomy) are considered, with emphasis on the latter. It is shown that both the error-reduction algorithm for the problem of a single intensity measurement and the Gerchberg-Saxton algorithm for the problem of two intensity measurements converge. The error-reduction algorithm is also shown to be closely related to the steepest-descent method. Other algorithms, including the input-output algorithm and the conjugate-gradient method, are shown to converge in practice much faster than the error-reduction algorithm. Examples are shown.

5,210 citations

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18 Jun 1995

TL;DR: A log- MAP algorithm is presented that avoids the approximations in the max-log-MAP algorithm and hence is equivalent to the true MAP, but without its major disadvantages, and it is concluded that the three algorithms increase in complexity in the order of their optimality.

Abstract: For estimating the states or outputs of a Markov process, the symbol-by-symbol MAP algorithm is optimal. However, this algorithm, even in its recursive form, poses technical difficulties because of numerical representation problems, the necessity of nonlinear functions and a high number of additions and multiplications. MAP like algorithms operating in the logarithmic domain presented in the past solve the numerical problem and reduce the computational complexity, but are suboptimal especially at low SNR (a common example is the max-log-MAP because of its use of the max function). A further simplification yields the soft-output Viterbi algorithm (SOVA). We present a log-MAP algorithm that avoids the approximations in the max-log-MAP algorithm and hence is equivalent to the true MAP, but without its major disadvantages. We compare the (log-)MAP, max-log-MAP and SOVA from a theoretical point of view to illuminate their commonalities and differences. As a practical example forming the basis for simulations, we consider Turbo decoding, where recursive systematic convolutional component codes are decoded with the three algorithms, and we also demonstrate the practical suitability of the log-MAP by including quantization effects. The SOVA is, at 10/sup -4/, approximately 0.7 dB inferior to the (log-)MAP, the max-log-MAP lying roughly in between. We also present some complexity comparisons and conclude that the three algorithms increase in complexity in the order of their optimality.

1,818 citations