Topic

# Diffraction efficiency

About: Diffraction efficiency is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 10320 publications have been published within this topic receiving 158298 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a coupled wave analysis of the Bragg diffraction of light by thick hologram gratings is given, analogous to Phariseau's treatment of acoustic gratings and to the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction.

Abstract: A coupled wave analysis is given of the Bragg diffraction of light by thick hologram gratings, which is analogous to Phariseau's treatment of acoustic gratings and to the “dynamical” theory of X-ray diffraction. The theory remains valid for large diffraction efficiencies where the incident wave is strongly depleted. It is applied to transmission holograms and to reflection holograms. Spatial modulations of both the refractive index and the absorption constant are allowed for. The effects of loss in the grating and of slanted fringes are also considered. Algebraic formulas and their numerical evaluations are given for the diffraction efficiencies and the angular and wavelength sensitivities of the various hologram types.

5,244 citations

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TL;DR: The mathematical justification of the theory on the basis of electromagnetic theory is described, and the applicability of this theory, or a modification of it, to other branches of physics is explained.

Abstract: The geometrical theory of diffraction is an extension of geometrical optics which accounts for diffraction. It introduces diffracted rays in addition to the usual rays of geometrical optics. These rays are produced by incident rays which hit edges, corners, or vertices of boundary surfaces, or which graze such surfaces. Various laws of diffraction, analogous to the laws of reflection and refraction, are employed to characterize the diffracted rays. A modified form of Fermat’s principle, equivalent to these laws, can also be used. Diffracted wave fronts are defined, which can be found by a Huygens wavelet construction. There is an associated phase or eikonal function which satisfies the eikonal equation. In addition complex or imaginary rays are introduced. A field is associated with each ray and the total field at a point is the sum of the fields on all rays through the point. The phase of the field on a ray is proportional to the optical length of the ray from some reference point. The amplitude varies in accordance with the principle of conservation of energy in a narrow tube of rays. The initial value of the field on a diffracted ray is determined from the incident field with the aid of an appropriate diffraction coefficient. These diffraction coefficients are determined from certain canonical problems. They all vanish as the wavelength tends to zero. The theory is applied to diffraction by an aperture in a thin screen diffraction by a disk, etc., to illustrate it. Agreement is shown between the predictions of the theory and various other theoretical analyses of some of these problems. Experimental confirmation of the theory is also presented. The mathematical justification of the theory on the basis of electromagnetic theory is described. Finally, the applicability of this theory, or a modification of it, to other branches of physics is explained.

3,032 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a stable and efficient numerical implementation of the analysis technique for one-dimensional binary gratings for both TE and TM polarization and for the general case of conical diffraction.

Abstract: The rigorous coupled-wave analysis technique for describing the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic grating structures is reviewed. Formulations for a stable and efficient numerical implementation of the analysis technique are presented for one-dimensional binary gratings for both TE and TM polarization and for the general case of conical diffraction. It is shown that by exploitation of the symmetry of the diffraction problem a very efficient formulation, with up to an order-of-magnitude improvement in the numerical efficiency, is produced. The rigorous coupled-wave analysis is shown to be inherently stable. The sources of potential numerical problems associated with underflow and overflow, inherent in digital calculations, are presented. A formulation that anticipates and preempts these instability problems is presented. The calculated diffraction efficiencies for dielectric gratings are shown to converge to the correct value with an increasing number of space harmonics over a wide range of parameters, including very deep gratings. The effect of the number of harmonics on the convergence of the diffraction efficiencies is investigated. More field harmonics are shown to be required for the convergence of gratings with larger grating periods, deeper gratings, TM polarization, and conical diffraction.

2,437 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a rigorous coupled-wave approach is used to analyze diffraction by general planar gratings bounded by two different media, and the analysis is based on a state-variables representation and results in a unifying, easily computer-implementable matrix formulation.

Abstract: A rigorous coupled-wave approach is used to analyze diffraction by general planar gratings bounded by two different media. The grating fringes may have any orientation (slanted or unslanted) with respect to the grating surfaces. The analysis is based on a state-variables representation and results in a unifying, easily computer-implementable matrix formulation of the general planar-grating diffraction problem. Accurate diffraction characteristics are presented for the first time to the authors’ knowledge for general slanted gratings. This present rigorous formulation is compared with rigorous modal theory, approximate two-wave modal theory, approximate multiwave coupled-wave theory, and approximate two-wave coupled-wave theory. Typical errors in the diffraction characteristics introduced by these various approximate theories are evaluated for transmission, slanted, and reflection gratings. Inclusion of higher-order waves in a theory is important for obtaining accurate predictions when forward-diffracted orders are dominant (transmission-grating behavior). Conversely, when backward-diffracted orders dominate (reflection-grating behavior), second derivatives of the field amplitudes and boundary diffraction need to be included to produce accurate results.

2,224 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a non-linear theory of self-diffraction on the light induced grating of refractive index in electrooptic crystals is developed and the intensities of the diffracted beams, the diffraction efficiency, and the shape of the surfaces of equal index change are calculated analytically for saturation holograms.

Abstract: The non-linear theory of the self-diffraction on the light induced grating of refractive index in electrooptic crystals is developed. The intensities of the diffracted beams, the diffraction efficiency, and the shape of the surfaces of equal index change are calculated analytically for saturation holograms.Holographic storage in nominally pure reduced crystals of LiNbO3 is studied experimentally. It is shown that the developed theory in diffusion approximation satisfactorily describes the experimental data.

1,537 citations