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Dimer

About: Dimer is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 18291 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 433645 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
24 May 1996-Science
TL;DR: Two possible proton pathways for pumping, each spanning from the matrix to the cytosolic surfaces, were identified, including hydrogen bonds, internal cavities likely to contain water molecules, and structures that could form hydrogen bonds with small possible conformational change of amino acid side chains.

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Abstract: The crystal structure of bovine heart cytochrome c oxidase at 2.8 A resolution with an R value of 19.9 percent reveals 13 subunits, each different from the other, five phosphatidyl ethanolamines, three phosphatidyl glycerols and two cholates, two hemes A, and three copper, one magnesium, and one zinc. Of 3606 amino acid residues in the dimer, 3560 have been converged to a reasonable structure by refinement. A hydrogen-bonded system, including a propionate of a heme A (heme a), part of peptide backbone, and an imidazole ligand of CuA, could provide an electron transfer pathway between CuA and heme a. Two possible proton pathways for pumping, each spanning from the matrix to the cytosolic surfaces, were identified, including hydrogen bonds, internal cavities likely to contain water molecules, and structures that could form hydrogen bonds with small possible conformational change of amino acid side chains. Possible channels for chemical protons to produce H2O, for removing the produced water, and for O2, respectively, were identified.

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1,981 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
08 Jan 1998-Nature
TL;DR: An atomic model of the αβ tubulin dimer fitted to a 3.7-Å density map obtained by electron crystallography of zinc-induced tubulin sheets is presented.

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Abstract: The αβ tubulin heterodimer is the structural subunit of microtubules, which are cytoskeletal elements that are essential for intracellular transport and cell division in all eukaryotes. Each tubulin monomer binds a guanine nucleotide, which is non-exchangeable when it is bound in the α subunit, or N site, and exchangeable when bound in the β subunit, or E site. The α- and β-tubulins share 40% amino-acid sequence identity, both exist in several isotype forms, and both undergo a variety of post-translational modifications1. Limited sequence homology has been found with the proteins FtsZ2 and Misato3, which are involved in cell division in bacteria and Drosophila, respectively. Here we present an atomic model of the αβ tubulin dimer fitted to a 3.7-A density map obtained by electron crystallography of zinc-induced tubulin sheets. The structures of α- and β-tubulin are basically identical: each monomer is formed by a core of two β-sheets surrounded by α-helices. The monomer structure is very compact, but can be divided into three functional domains: the amino-terminal domain containing the nucleotide-binding region, an intermediate domain containing the Taxol-binding site, and the carboxy-terminal domain, which probably constitutes the binding surface for motor proteins.

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1,874 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The synthesis, electrochemistry, and photophysics of a series of square planar Pt(II) complexes are reported, with well-resolved vibronic fine structure observed in all of the emission spectra.

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Abstract: The synthesis, electrochemistry, and photophysics of a series of square planar Pt(II) complexes are reported. The complexes have the general structure C∧NPt(O∧O),where C∧N is a monoanionic cyclometalating ligand (e.g., 2-phenylpyridyl, 2-(2‘-thienyl)pyridyl, 2-(4,6-difluorophenyl)pyridyl, etc.) and O∧O is a β-diketonato ligand. Reaction of K2PtCl4 with a HC∧N ligand precursor forms the chloride-bridged dimer, C∧NPt(μ-Cl)2PtC∧N, which is cleaved with β-diketones such as acetyl acetone (acacH) and dipivaloylmethane (dpmH) to give the corresponding monomeric C∧NPt(O∧O) complex. The thpyPt(dpm) (thpy = 2-(2‘-thienyl)pyridyl) complex has been characterized using X-ray crystallography. The bond lengths and angles for this complex are similar to those of related cyclometalated Pt complexes. There are two independent molecular dimers in the asymmetric unit, with intermolecular spacings of 3.45 and 3.56 A, consistent with moderate π−π interactions and no evident Pt−Pt interactions. Most of the C∧NPt(O∧O) complexes...

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1,288 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A molecular orbital analysis shows that the antiferromagnetic contributions to magnetic coupling, favoring a lowspin ground state for a dimer containing two weakly interacting metal centers, can be analyzed in terms of pairwise interactions of dimeric molecular orbitals, with the square of the splitting in energy between the members of a pair being a measure of the stabilization of the low-spin state. The effect of geometrical distortions, electronegativity, and variation of substituents on the magnetic interaction in dimeric systems is examined in detail for singly bridged L,M-X-ML, ( n = 3 , 4 , 5); Cu~C16~and other doubly bridged species where the bridging ligands are halogens, OR, pyridine N-oxides, oxalate, squarate; and the acetate bridged dimers C u ~ ( R C 0 0 ) 4 . The emphasis is on d9 Cu(I1) dimers, but other transition metal systems are also analyzed. Transition metal complexes containing more than one metal atom with unpaired electrons can generally be categorized according to their magnetic behavior into three main groups depending on the strength of the metal-metal interaction. In the noninteracting type the magnetic properties of the dimer (or polymer) a re essentially unchanged from the paramagnetic monomer. In the strongly interacting type formation of relatively strong metal-metal bonds occurs, and the molecule will display simple diamagnetic behavior (for even numbers of electrons). In this paper the properties of weakly interacting metal ions will be investigated. In such compounds this weak coupling between the electrons of the two metal ions leads to low-lying excited states of different spin which can be populated a t thermal energies (SI000 cm-I). The resulting magnetic behavior will be antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic, depending on whether the low spin (spins paired) or high spin (spins parallel) state is the ground state, respectively. These interactions-often termed superexchange because of the large distances involved (3-5 A) between the metal ions-have been observed in a wide variety of compounds. I 5 In experimental studies the magnetic interaction between spins SA and Sg for atoms A and B is usually written in a form suggested originally by Heisenberg, Dirac, and Van

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1,203 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Karyn T. O'Neil1, William F. DeGrado1Institutions (1)
02 Nov 1990-Science
TL;DR: The relative thermodynamic stabilities of each of the 20 commonly occurring amino acids in the alpha-helical versus random coil states have been determined through the design of a peptide that forms a noncovalent alpha- Helical dimer, which is in equilibrium with a randomly coiled monomeric state.

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Abstract: Amino acids have distinct conformational preferences that influence the stabilities of protein secondary and tertiary structures. The relative thermodynamic stabilities of each of the 20 commonly occurring amino acids in the alpha-helical versus random coil states have been determined through the design of a peptide that forms a noncovalent alpha-helical dimer, which is in equilibrium with a randomly coiled monomeric state. The alpha helices in the dimer contain a single solvent-exposed site that is surrounded by small, neutral amino acid side chains. Each of the commonly occurring amino acids was substituted into this guest site, and the resulting equilibrium constants for the monomer-dimer equilibrium were determined to provide a list of free energy difference (delta delta G degree) values.

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1,137 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20224
2021291
2020304
2019342
2018380
2017437

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Atsuhiro Osuka

43 papers, 770 citations

Zofia Dega-Szafran

20 papers, 221 citations

Pavel Hobza

14 papers, 895 citations

Ludwik Adamowicz

13 papers, 230 citations

Michael Bolte

11 papers, 210 citations