Topic

# Dipole

About: Dipole is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 52856 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1100945 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the transition probability of pure-electronic electric dipole transitions between levels of the 4-fluorescence configuration perturbed by a static crystalline field is treated.

Abstract: Magnetic and electric dipole transitions between levels of the 4fx configuration perturbed by a static crystalline field are treated. The expression obtained for the pure‐electronic electric‐dipole transition probability involves matrix elements of an even‐order unit tensor between the two 4fx states involved in the transition. The contributions to the transition probability from interactions, via the crystalline field, with the nd 94fx−1, 4fx−1 nd, 4fx−1 ng configurations are shown to add linearly, in such a manner as to multiply each odd k crystal‐field parameter Ak q by a constant. If ``J mixing'' in the 4fx configuration is neglected ΔJ between the upper and lower 4fx levels is restricted to six units or less. If ``L mixing'' is neglected then ΔL is also restricted to six units or less. Application is made to the fluorescence spectra of PrCl3 and EuCl3. Many of the missing and weak transitions are explained.

6,445 citations

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Abstract: Recent research activities on the linear magnetoelectric (ME) effect?induction of magnetization by an electric field or of polarization by a magnetic field?are reviewed. Beginning with a brief summary of the history of the ME effect since its prediction in 1894, the paper focuses on the present revival of the effect. Two major sources for 'large' ME effects are identified. (i) In composite materials the ME effect is generated as a product property of a magnetostrictive and a piezoelectric compound. A linear ME polarization is induced by a weak ac magnetic field oscillating in the presence of a strong dc bias field. The ME effect is large if the ME coefficient coupling the magnetic and electric fields is large. Experiments on sintered granular composites and on laminated layers of the constituents as well as theories on the interaction between the constituents are described. In the vicinity of electromechanical resonances a ME voltage coefficient of up to 90?V?cm?1?Oe?1 is achieved, which exceeds the ME response of single-phase compounds by 3?5 orders of magnitude. Microwave devices, sensors, transducers and heterogeneous read/write devices are among the suggested technical implementations of the composite ME effect. (ii) In multiferroics the internal magnetic and/or electric fields are enhanced by the presence of multiple long-range ordering. The ME effect is strong enough to trigger magnetic or electrical phase transitions. ME effects in multiferroics are thus 'large' if the corresponding contribution to the free energy is large. Clamped ME switching of electrical and magnetic domains, ferroelectric reorientation induced by applied magnetic fields and induction of ferromagnetic ordering in applied electric fields were observed. Mechanisms favouring multiferroicity are summarized, and multiferroics in reduced dimensions are discussed. In addition to composites and multiferroics, novel and exotic manifestations of ME behaviour are investigated. This includes (i) optical second harmonic generation as a tool to study magnetic, electrical and ME properties in one setup and with access to domain structures; (ii) ME effects in colossal magnetoresistive manganites, superconductors and phosphates of the LiMPO4 type; (iii) the concept of the toroidal moment as manifestation of a ME dipole moment; (iv) pronounced ME effects in photonic crystals with a possibility of electromagnetic unidirectionality. The review concludes with a summary and an outlook to the future development of magnetoelectrics research.

4,315 citations

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TL;DR: In this method, non-linear susceptibility tensors are introduced which relate the induced dipole moment to a power series expansion in field strengths and the various experimental observations are described and interpreted in terms of this formalism.

Abstract: Recent advances in the field of nonlinear optical phenomena are reviewed with particular empphasis placed on such topics as parametric oscillation self-focusing and trapping of laser beams, and stimulated Raman, Rayleigh, and Brillouin scattering. The optical frequency radiation is treated classically in terms of the amplitudes and phases of the electromagnetic fields. The interactions of light waves in a mterial are then formulated in terms of Maxwell's equations and the electric dipole approximation. In this method, non-linear susceptibility tensors are introdueed which relate the induced dipole moment to a power series expansion in field strengths. The tensor nature and the frequency dependence of the nonlinearity coefficients are considered. The various experimental, observations are described and interpreted in terms of this formalism.

3,893 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a new internally contracted direct multiconfiguration-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method is described which allows the use of much larger reference spaces than any previous MRCI method.

Abstract: A new internally contracted direct multiconfiguration–reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method is described which allows the use of much larger reference spaces than any previous MRCI method. The configurations with two electrons in the external orbital space are generated by applying pair excitation operators to the reference wave function as a whole, while the singly external and internal configurations are standard uncontracted spin eigenfunctions. A new efficient and simple method for the calculation of the coupling coefficients is used, which is well suited for vector machines, and allows the recalculation of all coupling coefficients each time they are needed. The vector H⋅c is computed partly in a nonorthogonal configuration basis. In order to test the accuracy of the internally contracted wave functions, benchmark calculations have been performed for F−, H2O, NH2, CH2, CH3, OH, NO, N2, and O2 at various geometries. The deviations of the energies obtained with internally contracted and uncontracted MRCI wave functions are mostly smaller than 1 mH and typically 3–5 times smaller than the deviations between the uncontracted MRCI and the full CI. Dipole moments, electric dipole polarizabilities, and electronic dipole transition moments calculated with uncontracted and contracted MRCI wave functions also are found to be in close agreement. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated in large scale calculations for the CN, NH3, CO2, and Cr2 molecules. In these calculations up to 3088 reference configurations and up to 154 orbitals were employed. The biggest calculation is equivalent to an uncontracted MRCI with more than 78 million configurations.

3,375 citations

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TL;DR: A simple, analytic, and fully quantum theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields is presented and the exact quantum-mechanical formula for the harmonic cutoff that differs from the phenomenological law Ip+3.17Up is presented.

Abstract: We present a simple, analytic, and fully quantum theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields. The theory recovers the classical interpretation of Kulander et al. in Proceedings of the SILAP III Works hop, edited by B. Piraux (Plenum, New York, 1993) and Corkum [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993)] and clearly explains why the single-atom harmonic-generation spectra fall off at an energy approximately equal to the ionization energy plus about three times the oscillation energy of a free electron in the field. The theory is valid for arbitrary atomic potentials and can be generalized to describe laser fields of arbitrary ellipticity and spectrum. We discuss the role of atomic dipole matrix elements, electron rescattering processes, and of depletion of the ground state. We present the exact quantum-mechanical formula for the harmonic cutoff that differs from the phenomenological law Ip+3.17Up, where Ip is the atomic ionization potential and Up is the ponderomotive energy, due to the account for quantum tunneling and diffusion effects.

3,007 citations