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Direct methanol fuel cell

About: Direct methanol fuel cell is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4804 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 141183 citation(s). The topic is also known as: DMFC.

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Abstract: In this paper, more than 100 articles related to anode catalysts for the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) are reviewed, mainly focusing on the three most active areas: (1) progress in preparation methods of Pt–Ru catalysts with respect to activity improvement and utilization optimization; (2) preparation of novel carbon materials as catalyst supports to create a highly dispersed and stably supported catalysts; (3) exploration of new catalysts with a low noble metal content and non-noble metal elements through fast activity down-selection methods such as combinatorial methods. Suggested research and development (R&D) directions for new DMFC anode catalysis are also discussed.

1,523 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A status report on development of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) and relevant fundamental and applied electrochemistry is the objective of this review paper. Emphasis is put on strategies and approaches rather than on individual results. The state-of-the-art in the fields of methodology, catalysis, catalyst characterization, polymer electrolytes as well as assessment and interpretation of cell and electrode performance is described. Today’s cell performances are regarded critically. Problems and successes are analyzed. Directions and novel approaches for further work are also suggested.

1,181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Multiwalled carbon nanotube-supported Pt (Pt/MWNT) nanocomposites were prepared by both the aqueous solution reduction of a Pt salt (HCHO reduction) and the reduction of a Pt ion salt in ethylene glycol solution. For comparison, a Pt/XC-72 nanocomposite was also prepared by the EG method. The Pt/MWNT catalyst prepared by the EG method has a high and homogeneous dispersion of spherical Pt metal particles with a narrow particle-size distribution. TEM images show that the Pt particle size is in the range of 2-5 nm with a peak at 2.6 nm, which is consistent with 2.5 nm obtained from the XRD broadening calculation. Surface chemical modifications of MWNTs and water content in EG solvent are found to be the key factors in depositing Pt particles on MWNTs. In the case of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) test, the Pt/MWNT catalyst prepared by EG reduction is slightly superior to the catalyst prepared by aqueous reduction and displays significantly higher performance than the Pt/XC-72 catalyst. These differences in catalytic performance between the MWNT-supported or the carbon black XC-72-supported catalysts are attributed to a greater dispersion of the supported Pt particles when the EG method is used, in contrast to aqueous HCHO reduction and to possible unique structural and higher electrical properties when contrasting MWNTs to carbon black XC-72 as a support.

1,124 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article introduces the radical approach of applying alkaline anion-exchange membranes (AAEMs) to meet the current challenges with regards to direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). A review of the literature is presented with regards to the testing of fuel cells with alkaline membranes (fuelled with hydrogen or methanol) and also to candidate alkaline anion-exchange membranes for such an application. A brief review of the directly related patent literature is also included. Current and future research challenges are identified along with potential strategies to overcome them. Finally, the advantages and challenges with the direct electrochemical oxidation of alternative fuels are discussed, along with how the application of alkaline membranes in such fuel cells may assist in improving performance and fuel efficiency.

1,100 citations

23 Mar 2006
Abstract: Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: Coal in the Industrial Revolution, and Beyond. Chapter 3: History of Oil and Natural Gas. Oil Extraction and Exploration. Natural Gas. Chapter 4: Fossil Fuel Resources and Uses. Coal. Oil. Tar Sands. Oil Shale. Natural Gas. Coalbed Methane. Tight Sands and Shales. Methane Hydrates. Outlook. Chapter 5: Diminishing Oil and Gas Reserves. Chapter 6: The Continuing Need for Hydrocarbons and their Products. Fractional Distillation. Thermal Cracking. Chapter 7: Fossil Fuels and Climate Change. Mitigation. Chapter 8: Renewable Energy Sources and Atomic Energy. Hydropower. Geothermal Energy. Wind Energy. Solar Energy: Photovoltaic and Thermal. Electricity from Photovoltaic Conversion. Solar Thermal Power for Electricity Production. Electric Power from Saline Solar Ponds. Solar Thermal Energy for Heating. Economic Limitations of Solar Energy. Biomass Energy. Electricity from Biomass. Liquid Biofuels. Ocean Energy: Thermal, Tidal, and Wave Power. Tidal Energy. Waves. Ocean Thermal Energy. Nuclear Energy. Energy from Nuclear Fission Reactions. Breeder Reactors. The Need for Nuclear Power. Economics. Safety. Radiation Hazards. Nuclear Byproducts and Waste. Emissions. Nuclear Power: An Energy Source for the Future. Nuclear Fusion. Future Outlook. Chapter 9: The Hydrogen Economy and its Limitations. The Discovery and Properties of Hydrogen. The Development of Hydrogen Energy. The Production and Uses of Hydrogen. Hydrogen from Fossil Fuels. Hydrogen from Biomass. Photobiological Water Cleavage. Water Electrolysis. Hydrogen Production Using Nuclear Energy. The Challenge of Hydrogen Storage. Liquid Hydrogen. Compressed Hydrogen. Metal Hydrides and Solid Absorbents. Other Means of Hydrogen Storage. Hydrogen: Centralized or Decentralized Distribution? Safety of Hydrogen. Hydrogen in Transportation. Fuel Cells. History. Fuel Cell Efficiency. Hydrogen-Based Fuel Cells. PEM Fuel Cells for Transportation. Regenerative Fuel Cells. Outlook. Chapter 10: The "Methanol Economy": General Aspects. Chapter 11: Methanol as a Fuel and Energy Carrier. Properties and Historical Background. Present Uses of Methanol. Use of Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Transportation Fuels. Alcohol as a Transportation Fuel in the Past. Methanol as Fuel in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). Methanol and Dimethyl Ether as Diesel Fuels Substitute in Compression Ignition Engines. Biodiesel Fuel. Advanced Methanol-Powered Vehicles. Hydrogen for Fuel Cells from Methanol Reforming. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC). Fuel Cells Based on Other Fuels and Biofuel Cells. Regenerative Fuel Cell. Methanol for Static Power and Heat Generation. Methanol Storage and Distribution. Methanol Price. Methanol Safety. Emissions from Methanol-Powered Vehicles. Methanol and the Environment. Methanol and Issues of Climate Change. Chapter 12: Production of Methanol from Syn-Gas to Carbon Dioxide. Methanol from Fossil Fuels. Production via Syn-Gas. Syn-Gas from Natural Gas. Methane Steam Reforming. Partial Oxidation of Methane. Autothermal Reforming and Combination of Steam Reforming and Partial Oxidation. Syn-Gas from CO2 Reforming. Syn-Gas from Petroleum and Higher Hydrocarbons. Syn-Gas from Coal. Economics of Syn-Gas Generation. Methanol through Methyl Formate. Methanol from Methane Without Syn-Gas. Selective Oxidation of Methane to Methanol. Catalytic Gas-Phase Oxidation of Methane. Liquid-Phase Oxidation of Methane to Methanol. Methanol Production through Mono-Halogenated Methanes. Microbial or Photochemical Conversion of Methane to Methanol. Methanol from Biomass. Methanol from Biogas. Aquaculture. Water Plants. Algae. Methanol from Carbon Dioxide. Carbon Dioxide from Industrial Flue Gases. Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere. Chapter 13: Methanol-Based Chemicals, Synthetic Hydrocarbons and Materials. Methanol-Based Chemical Products and Materials. Methanol Conversion to Olefins and Synthetic Hydrocarbons. Methanol to Olefin (MTO) Process. Methanol to Gasoline (MTG) Process. Methanol-Based Proteins. Outlook. Chapter 14: Future Perspectives. The "Methanol Economy" and its Advantages. Further Reading and Information. References. Index.

997 citations

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