Topic

# Dirty paper coding

About: Dirty paper coding is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 814 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 37097 citation(s).

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TL;DR: While the proposed algorithms are suboptimal, they lead to simpler transmitter and receiver structures and allow for a reasonable tradeoff between performance and complexity.

Abstract: The use of space-division multiple access (SDMA) in the downlink of a multiuser multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) wireless communications network can provide a substantial gain in system throughput. The challenge in such multiuser systems is designing transmit vectors while considering the co-channel interference of other users. Typical optimization problems of interest include the capacity problem - maximizing the sum information rate subject to a power constraint-or the power control problem-minimizing transmitted power such that a certain quality-of-service metric for each user is met. Neither of these problems possess closed-form solutions for the general multiuser MIMO channel, but the imposition of certain constraints can lead to closed-form solutions. This paper presents two such constrained solutions. The first, referred to as "block-diagonalization," is a generalization of channel inversion when there are multiple antennas at each receiver. It is easily adapted to optimize for either maximum transmission rate or minimum power and approaches the optimal solution at high SNR. The second, known as "successive optimization," is an alternative method for solving the power minimization problem one user at a time, and it yields superior results in some (e.g., low SNR) situations. Both of these algorithms are limited to cases where the transmitter has more antennas than all receive antennas combined. In order to accommodate more general scenarios, we also propose a framework for coordinated transmitter-receiver processing that generalizes the two algorithms to cases involving more receive than transmit antennas. While the proposed algorithms are suboptimal, they lead to simpler transmitter and receiver structures and allow for a reasonable tradeoff between performance and complexity.

3,117 citations

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TL;DR: Under certain mild conditions, this scheme is found to be throughput-wise asymptotically optimal for both high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and some numerical results are provided for the ergodic throughput of the simplified zero-forcing scheme in independent Rayleigh fading.

Abstract: A Gaussian broadcast channel (GBC) with r single-antenna receivers and t antennas at the transmitter is considered. Both transmitter and receivers have perfect knowledge of the channel. Despite its apparent simplicity, this model is, in general, a nondegraded broadcast channel (BC), for which the capacity region is not fully known. For the two-user case, we find a special case of Marton's (1979) region that achieves optimal sum-rate (throughput). In brief, the transmitter decomposes the channel into two interference channels, where interference is caused by the other user signal. Users are successively encoded, such that encoding of the second user is based on the noncausal knowledge of the interference caused by the first user. The crosstalk parameters are optimized such that the overall throughput is maximum and, surprisingly, this is shown to be optimal over all possible strategies (not only with respect to Marton's achievable region). For the case of r>2 users, we find a somewhat simpler choice of Marton's region based on ordering and successively encoding the users. For each user i in the given ordering, the interference caused by users j>i is eliminated by zero forcing at the transmitter, while interference caused by users j

*2,540 citations*

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TL;DR: It is shown that a zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) strategy, while generally suboptimal, can achieve the same asymptotic sum capacity as that of DPC, as the number of users goes to infinity.

Abstract: Although the capacity of multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channels (BCs) can be achieved by dirty paper coding (DPC), it is difficult to implement in practical systems. This paper investigates if, for a large number of users, simpler schemes can achieve the same performance. Specifically, we show that a zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) strategy, while generally suboptimal, can achieve the same asymptotic sum capacity as that of DPC, as the number of users goes to infinity. In proving this asymptotic result, we provide an algorithm for determining which users should be active under ZFBF. These users are semiorthogonal to one another and can be grouped for simultaneous transmission to enhance the throughput of scheduling algorithms. Based on the user grouping, we propose and compare two fair scheduling schemes in round-robin ZFBF and proportional-fair ZFBF. We provide numerical results to confirm the optimality of ZFBF and to compare the performance of ZFBF and proposed fair scheduling schemes with that of various MIMO BC strategies.

*2,015 citations*

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TL;DR: A new notion of an enhanced broadcast channel is introduced and is used jointly with the entropy power inequality, to show that a superposition of Gaussian codes is optimal for the degraded vector broadcast channel and that DPC is ideal for the nondegraded case.

Abstract: The Gaussian multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channel (BC) is considered. The dirty-paper coding (DPC) rate region is shown to coincide with the capacity region. To that end, a new notion of an enhanced broadcast channel is introduced and is used jointly with the entropy power inequality, to show that a superposition of Gaussian codes is optimal for the degraded vector broadcast channel and that DPC is optimal for the nondegraded case. Furthermore, the capacity region is characterized under a wide range of input constraints, accounting, as special cases, for the total power and the per-antenna power constraints

*1,830 citations*

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TL;DR: It is shown that the dirty paper achievable region achieves the sum-rate capacity of the MIMO BC by establishing that the maximum sum rate of this region equals an upper bound on the sum rate.

Abstract: We consider a multiuser multiple-input multiple- output (MIMO) Gaussian broadcast channel (BC), where the transmitter and receivers have multiple antennas. Since the MIMO BC is in general a nondegraded BC, its capacity region remains an unsolved problem. We establish a duality between what is termed the "dirty paper" achievable region (the Caire-Shamai (see Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory, Washington, DC, June 2001, p.322) achievable region) for the MIMO BC and the capacity region of the MIMO multiple-access channel (MAC), which is easy to compute. Using this duality, we greatly reduce the computational complexity required for obtaining the dirty paper achievable region for the MIMO BC. We also show that the dirty paper achievable region achieves the sum-rate capacity of the MIMO BC by establishing that the maximum sum rate of this region equals an upper bound on the sum rate of the MIMO BC.

*1,743 citations*