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Dislocation

About: Dislocation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 36899 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 872267 citation(s). The topic is also known as: dislocation in crystals.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Parts I and II deal with the theory of crystal growth, parts III and IV with the form (on the atomic scale) of a crystal surface in equilibrium with the vapour. In part I we calculate the rate of advance of monomolecular steps (i.e. the edges of incomplete monomolecular layers of the crystal) as a function of supersaturation in the vapour and the mean concentration of kinks in the steps. We show that in most cases of growth from the vapour the rate of advance of monomolecular steps will be independent of their crystallographic orientation, so that a growing closed step will be circular. We also find the rate of advance for parallel sequences of steps. In part II we find the resulting rate of growth and the steepness of the growth cones or growth pyramids when the persistence of steps is due to the presence of dislocations. The cases in which several or many dislocations are involved are analysed in some detail; it is shown that they will commonly differ little from the case of a single dislocation. The rate of growth of a surface containing dislocations is shown to be proportional to the square of the supersaturation for low values and to the first power for high values of the latter. Volmer & Schultze’s (1931) observations on the rate of growth of iodine crystals from the vapour can be explained in this way. The application of the same ideas to growth of crystals from solution is briefly discussed. Part III deals with the equilibrium structure of steps, especially the statistics of kinks in steps, as dependent on temperature, binding energy parameters, and crystallographic orientation. The shape and size of a two-dimensional nucleus (i.e. an ‘island* of new monolayer of crystal on a completed layer) in unstable equilibrium with a given supersaturation at a given temperature is obtained, whence a corrected activation energy for two-dimensional nucleation is evaluated. At moderately low supersaturations this is so large that a crystal would have no observable growth rate. For a crystal face containing two screw dislocations of opposite sense, joined by a step, the activation energy is still very large when their distance apart is less than the diameter of the corresponding critical nucleus; but for any greater separation it is zero. Part IV treats as a ‘co-operative phenomenon’ the temperature dependence of the structure of the surface of a perfect crystal, free from steps at absolute zero. It is shown that such a surface remains practically flat (save for single adsorbed molecules and vacant surface sites) until a transition temperature is reached, at which the roughness of the surface increases very rapidly (‘ surface melting ’). Assuming that the molecules in the surface are all in one or other of two levels, the results of Onsager (1944) for two-dimensional ferromagnets can be applied with little change. The transition temperature is of the order of, or higher than, the melting-point for crystal faces with nearest neighbour interactions in both directions (e.g. (100) faces of simple cubic or (111) or (100) faces of face-centred cubic crystals). When the interactions are of second nearest neighbour type in one direction (e.g. (110) faces of s.c. or f.c.c. crystals), the transition temperature is lower and corresponds to a surface melting of second nearest neighbour bonds. The error introduced by the assumed restriction to two available levels is investigated by a generalization of Bethe’s method (1935) to larger numbers of levels. This method gives an anomalous result for the two-level problem. The calculated transition temperature decreases substantially on going from two to three levels, but remains practically the same for larger numbers.

4,266 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The mechanical properties of nanocrystalline materials are reviewed, with emphasis on their constitutive response and on the fundamental physical mechanisms. In a brief introduction, the most important synthesis methods are presented. A number of aspects of mechanical behavior are discussed, including the deviation from the Hall–Petch slope and possible negative slope, the effect of porosity, the difference between tensile and compressive strength, the limited ductility, the tendency for shear localization, the fatigue and creep responses. The strain-rate sensitivity of FCC metals is increased due to the decrease in activation volume in the nanocrystalline regime; for BCC metals this trend is not observed, since the activation volume is already low in the conventional polycrystalline regime. In fatigue, it seems that the S–N curves show improvement due to the increase in strength, whereas the da/dN curve shows increased growth velocity (possibly due to the smoother fracture requiring less energy to propagate). The creep results are conflicting: while some results indicate a decreased creep resistance consistent with the small grain size, other experimental results show that the creep resistance is not negatively affected. Several mechanisms that quantitatively predict the strength of nanocrystalline metals in terms of basic defects (dislocations, stacking faults, etc.) are discussed: break-up of dislocation pile-ups, core-and-mantle, grain-boundary sliding, grain-boundary dislocation emission and annihilation, grain coalescence, and gradient approach. Although this classification is broad, it incorporates the major mechanisms proposed to this date. The increased tendency for twinning, a direct consequence of the increased separation between partial dislocations, is discussed. The fracture of nanocrystalline metals consists of a mixture of ductile dimples and shear regions; the dimple size, while much smaller than that of conventional polycrystalline metals, is several times larger than the grain size. The shear regions are a direct consequence of the increased tendency of the nanocrystalline metals to undergo shear localization. The major computational approaches to the modeling of the mechanical processes in nanocrystalline metals are reviewed with emphasis on molecular dynamics simulations, which are revealing the emission of partial dislocations at grain boundaries and their annihilation after crossing them.

3,425 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J.W. Matthews1, A.E. Blakeslee1
Abstract: Multilayers composed of many thin films of GaAs and GaAs 0·5 P 0·5 were grown epitaxially on GaAs surfaces inclined at a few degrees to (001). Examination of the multilayers by transmission and scanning electron microscopy has revealed that the interfaces between layers were made up of large coherent areas separated by long straight misfit dislocations. The Burgers vectors of the dislocations were inclined at 45° to (001) and were of type 1/2a . Dislocations in adjacent interfaces were usually not independent of one another. They often lay on the same slip plane and when this was so they were clearly products of the same source. The layer thickness at which misfit dislocations were formed was in satisfactory agreement with the predicted thickness. However, the fraction of the total misfit accommodated by dislocations (once the critical thickness for dislocation generation was passed) was much smaller than predicted. This large discrepancy seems to arise from difficulties associated with the creation of misfit dislocations. Although there are many processes which can impede dislocation generation, the most important one in GaAs/GaAs 0·5 P 0·5 multilayers appears to be the impaction of dislocations on one glide plane against dislocations in another.

3,138 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Dislocation theory is used to invoke a strain gradient theory of rate independent plasticity. Hardening is assumed to result from the accumulation of both randomly stored and geometrically necessary dislocation. The density of the geometrically necessary dislocations scales with the gradient of plastic strain. A deformation theory of plasticity is introduced to represent in a phenomenological manner the relative roles of strain hardening and strain gradient hardening. The theory is a non-linear generalization of Cosserat couple stress theory. Tension and torsion experiments on thin copper wires confirm the presence of strain gradient hardening. The experiments are interpreted in the light of the new theory.

3,035 citations


Book
01 Jan 1979-
Abstract: Preface. Electrical noise associated with dislocations and plastic flow in metals (G. Bertotti, A. Ferro, F. Fiorillo, P. Mazetti). Mechanisms of dislocation drag (V.I. Alshits, V.L. Indenbom). Dislocations in covalent crystals (H. Alexander). Formation and evolution of dislocation structures during irradiation (B.O. Hall). Dislocation theory of martensitic transformations (G.B. Olsen, M. Cohen). Author index. Subject index. Cumulative index.

2,751 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022108
20211,499
20201,139
20191,158
20181,035
20171,049

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Michael Dudley

93 papers, 1.4K citations

Irene J. Beyerlein

88 papers, 3.6K citations

Tamás Ungár

73 papers, 5K citations

Hussein M. Zbib

69 papers, 2.5K citations

Nasr M. Ghoniem

56 papers, 1.8K citations