Topic

# Displacement current

About: Displacement current is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 800 publications have been published within this topic receiving 10229 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented the fundamental theory of the nanogenerators starting from the Maxwell equations, which indicated that the second term ∂ P ∂ t in the Maxwell's displacement current is directly related to the output electric current of the Nanogenerator.

Abstract: Self-powered system is a system that can sustainably operate without an external power supply for sensing, detection, data processing and data transmission. Nanogenerators were first developed for self-powered systems based on piezoelectric effect and triboelectrification effect for converting tiny mechanical energy into electricity, which have applications in internet of things, environmental/infrastructural monitoring, medical science and security. In this paper, we present the fundamental theory of the nanogenerators starting from the Maxwell equations. In the Maxwell's displacement current, the first term e 0 ∂ E ∂ t gives the birth of electromagnetic wave, which is the foundation of wireless communication, radar and later the information technology. Our study indicates that the second term ∂ P ∂ t in the Maxwell's displacement current is directly related to the output electric current of the nanogenerator, meaning that our nanogenerators are the applications of Maxwell's displacement current in energy and sensors. By contrast, electromagnetic generators are built based on Lorentz force driven flow of free electrons in a conductor. This study presents the similarity and differences between pieozoelectric nanogenerator and triboelectric nanogenerator, as well as the classical electromagnetic generator, so that the impact and uniqueness of the nanogenerators can be clearly understood. We also present the three major applications of nanogenerators as micro/nano-power source, self-powered sensors and blue energy.

1,315 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a formal theory for nanogenerators is presented starting from the Maxwell's equations, which includes both the medium polarizations due to electric field (P) and non-electric field induced polarization terms, from which, the output power, electromagnetic behavior and current transport equation for a NG are systematically derived.

Abstract: Nanogenerators (NGs) are a field that uses Maxwell's displacement current as the driving force for effectively converting mechanical energy into electric power/signal, which have broad applications in energy science, environmental protection, wearable electronics, self-powered sensors, medical science, robotics and artificial intelligence. NGs are usually based on three effects: piezoelectricity, triboelectricity (contact electrification), and pyroelectricity. In this paper, a formal theory for NGs is presented starting from Maxwell's equations. Besides the general expression for displacement vector D = eE used for deriving classical electromagnetic dynamics, we added an additional term Ps in D, which represents the polarization created by the electrostatic surface charges owing to piezoelectricity and/or triboelectricity as a result of mechanical triggering in NG. In contrast to P that is resulted from the electric field induced medium polarization and vanishes if E = 0, Ps remains even when there is no external electric field. We reformulated the Maxwell equations that include both the medium polarizations due to electric field (P) and non-electric field (such as strain) (Ps) induced polarization terms, from which, the output power, electromagnetic behavior and current transport equation for a NG are systematically derived. A general solution is presented for the modified Maxwell equations, and analytical solutions about the output potential are provided for a few cases. The displacement current arising from e∂E/∂t is responsible for the electromagnetic waves, while the newly added term ∂Ps/∂t is the application of Maxwell's equations in energy and sensors. This work sets the first principle theory for quantifying the performance and electromagnetic behavior of a nanogenerator in general.

377 citations

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TL;DR: A model to determine the influence of different cell properties, such as size, membrane capacitance and cytoplasm conductivity, on the impedance spectrum as measured in a microfabricated cytometer is proposed.

Abstract: We propose a model to determine the influence of different cell properties, such as size, membrane capacitance and cytoplasm conductivity, on the impedance spectrum as measured in a microfabricated cytometer. A dielectric sphere of equivalent complex permittivity is used as a simplified model to describe a biological cell. The measurement takes place between a pair of facing microelectrodes in a microchannel filled with a saline solution. The model incorporates various cell parameters, such as dielectric properties, size and position in the channel. A 3D finite element model is used to evaluate the magnitude of the electric field in the channel and the resultant changes in charge densities at the measurement electrode boundaries as a cell flows past. The charge density is integrated on the electrode surface to determine the displacement current and the channel impedance for the computed frequency range. The complete impedance model combines the finite element model, the electrode-electrolyte interface impedance and stray impedance, which are measured from a real device. The modeled dielectric complex spectra for various cell parameters are discussed and a measurement strategy for cell discrimination with such a system is proposed. We finally discuss the amount of noise and measurement fluctuations of the sensor.

317 citations

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TL;DR: Low-magnetic-field (for example, B values of ±30 milliteslas) control of the polarization vector in a hexaferrite, Ba2Mg2Fe12O22, which shows the helimagnetic spin structure with the propagation vector k0 parallel to [001].

Abstract: The mutual control of the electric and magnetic properties of a solid is currently of great interest because of the possible application for novel electronic devices. We report on the low-magnetic-field (for example, B values of +/-30 milliteslas) control of the polarization (P) vector in a hexaferrite, Ba2Mg2Fe12O22, which shows the helimagnetic spin structure with the propagation vector k0 parallel to [001]. The B-induced transverse conical spin structure carries the P vector directing perpendicular to both B and k0, in accord with the recently proposed spin-current model. Then, the oscillating or multidirectionally rotating B produces the cyclic displacement current via the flexible handling of the magnetic cone axis.

291 citations

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TL;DR: The hybrid-Vlasov code is implemented in a parallel version to exploit the computational power of the modern massively parallel supercomputers and the numerical results on propagation and damping of linear ion-acoustic modes and time evolution of linear elliptically polarized Alfven waves are compared to the analytical solutions.

Abstract: We present a numerical scheme for the integration of the Vlasov-Maxwell system of equations for a non-relativistic plasma, in the hybrid approximation, where the Vlasov equation is solved for the ion distribution function and the electrons are treated as a fluid. In the Ohm equation for the electric field, effects of electron inertia have been retained, in order to include the small scale dynamics up to characteristic lengths of the order of the electron skin depth. The low frequency approximation is used by neglecting the time derivative of the electric field, i.e. the displacement current in the Ampere equation. The numerical algorithm consists in coupling the splitting method proposed by Cheng and Knorr in 1976 [C.Z. Cheng, G. Knorr, J. Comput. Phys. 22 (1976) 330-351.] and the current advance method (CAM) introduced by Matthews in 1994 [A.P. Matthews, J. Comput. Phys. 112 (1994) 102-116.] In its present version, the code solves the Vlasov-Maxwell equations in a five-dimensional phase space (2-D in the physical space and 3-D in the velocity space) and it is implemented in a parallel version to exploit the computational power of the modern massively parallel supercomputers. The structure of the algorithm and the coupling between the splitting method and the CAM method (extended to the hybrid case) is discussed in detail. Furthermore, in order to test the hybrid-Vlasov code, the numerical results on propagation and damping of linear ion-acoustic modes and time evolution of linear elliptically polarized Alfven waves (including the so-called whistler regime) are compared to the analytical solutions. Finally, the numerical results of the hybrid-Vlasov code on the parametric instability of Alfven waves are compared with those obtained using a two-fluid approach.

223 citations