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Distilled water

About: Distilled water is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 7909 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 88519 citation(s).

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Abstract: We report a new method for the synthesis of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanotubes. When anatase-phase- or rutile-phase-containing TiO2 was treated with an aqueous solution of 5–10 M NaOH for 20 h at 110 °C and then with HCl aqueous solution and distilled water, needle-shaped TiO2 products were obtained (diameter ≈ 8 nm, length ≈ 100 nm). The needle-shaped products are nanotubes with inner diameters of approximately 5 nm and outer diameters of approximately 8 nm. The formation mechanism of titania nanotubes is discussed in terms of the detailed observation of the products by transmission electron microscopy: the crystalline raw material is first converted to an amorphous product through alkali treatment, and subsequently, titania nanotubes are formed after treatment with distilled water and HCl aqueous solution.

1,436 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Aug 1946-Nature
TL;DR: The histological demonstration of mucin by Schiff's reagent following the action of periodic acid is described, as for the Feulgen's test.
Abstract: THIS note describes the histological demonstration of mucin by Schiff's reagent following the action of periodic acid. Zenker-formol sections were passed to water, after iodine and hypo, and placed for two minutes in a 0.5 per cent solution of periodic acid in distilled water. The sections were then washed in tap and distilled water and placed in Schiff's reagent for fifteen minutes at room temperature. The customary rinsings in sulphurous acid, as for the Feulgen's test, followed, and the sections were dehydrated in alcohols and mounted in balsam after xylene.

1,135 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Numerous aspects of the wet acidic digestion procedure for the assay of chromic acid in a small amount of feed and excreta were examined to study the digestibility of feed by marine fishes; these examined were the spectral absorption curves of solutions prepared by the wet acid digestion of chromic oxide (Fig. 1), the stability of chromic acid solution obtained (Tables 1, 2), the effects of the amount of perchloric acid added (Table 2) and the wavelength to pre-pare the concentration-optical density curve (Fig. 2). The results of the present work showed that the following procedures were adequate for the study of digestibility. Weigh 50-100mg sample containing 1-3mg chromic oxide, wrap in a piece of filter paper and transfer to a dry 100ml Kjeldahl flask. Add 5ml of concentrated nitric acid in such a manner that it will wash down the particles adhered on the inside of the flask and allow to stand for a short period. Heat flask over a micro-electric heater which has the holes in the asbestos board covered so as to allow more heat to come in contact with the flasks. Allow the sample to digest until white precipitate is obtained (for about 20 minutes). When black particles adhere to the neck or side of the flask, wash them down by turning the flask 180°. Turn off the heater, cool the flask and 3ml perchloric acid to the digestion mixture and then reheat until green colour changes to yellow, orange or red. The reversal change in colour frequently occurs if the flasks are cooled just after the change in colour from green to yellow, because of the insufficient oxidation of the content. Therefore, the extension of digestion for 10 minutes is necessary after the colour change. Cool slightly and add about 50ml distilled water. Cool to room temperature and make up to 100ml in a volumetric flask with distilled water. Allow to stand for a few minutes to precipitate inor-ganic material. Transfer solution gently from the volumetric flask to a colorimetric tube, and read optical density at 350mμ against distilled water. The standard curve obtained by the wet acid digestion technique is expressed by the following equation;, Y=0.2089X+0.0032, where Y is the optical density at 350mμ, and X is the chromic oxide content of the sample (mg/100ml).

835 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Frozen sections of formalin-fixed brains containing surgical lesions, were treated with 15% ethanol for 0.5 hr, and subsequently treated with 0.05% potassium permanganate for 4–10 min, and covered in neutral synthetic resin.
Abstract: Frozen sections of formalin-fixed brains containing surgical lesions, were treated with 15% ethanol for 0.5 hr., soaked in 0.5% phosphomolybdic acid for 0.25–1.0 hr., and subsequently treated with 0.05% potassium permanganate for 4–10 min. (The duration of the latter treatment is critical and individually variable). Subsequent procedure is as follows: decolorize in a mixture of equal parts of 1% hydroquinone and 1% oxalic acid; wash thoroughly and soak sections in 1.5% silver nitrate for 20–30 min.; ammoniacal silver nitrate (silver nitrate 0.9 g., distilled water 20 ml., pure ethanol 10 ml., strong ammonia 1.8 ml., 2.5% sodium hydroxide 1.5 ml.) 0.5–1.0 min.; reduce in acidified formalin (distilled water 400 ml., pure ethanol 45 ml., 1% citric acid 13.5 ml., 10% formalin 13.5 ml.) 1 min.; wash, and pass section through 1% sodium thiosulfate (0.5–1.0 min.); wash thoroughly and pass sections through graded alcohols and xylene (3 changes); cover in neutral synthetic resin.

805 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The concentration of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in distilled water, drinking water and in different types of surface and rain waters can be easily determined by a photometric method in which N,N-diethyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPD) is oxidized by a peroxidase catalyzed reaction. DPD is available as a commercial reagent. In all waters its oxidation occurs with a stoichiometric factor of 2.0 and leads to an absorbance (at 551 nm) of 21,000 ± 500 M−1cm−1 per H2O2. In the presence of other hydroperoxides H2O2 can be determined by comparison with a blank in which the H2O2 is destroyed with sulfite, and the sulfite residual masked with formaldehyde. The detection limit is 0.2 μg l−1 in distilled water and about 0.3 μg l−1 in most types of natural waters when 10 cm cells and a spectrophometer are used. We consider the DPD method to be a candidate for a standard method for drinking water analysis because it is easy to perform and to calibrate for absolute determinations.

728 citations

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