Diurnal temperature variation
About: Diurnal temperature variation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4340 publications have been published within this topic receiving 110360 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The surface air temperature record of the past 150 years, considering the homogeneity of the basic data and the standard errors of estimation of the average hemispheric and global estimates, is reviewed in this article.
Abstract: We review the surface air temperature record of the past 150 years, considering the homogeneity of the basic data and the standard errors of estimation of the average hemispheric and global estimates. We present global fields of surface temperature change over the two 20-year periods of greatest warming this century, 1925–1944 and 1978–1997. Over these periods, global temperatures rose by 0.37° and 0.32°C, respectively. The twentieth-century warming has been accompanied by a decrease in those areas of the world affected by exceptionally cool temperatures and to a lesser extent by increases in areas affected by exceptionally warm temperatures. In recent decades there have been much greater increases in night minimum temperatures than in day maximum temperatures, so that over 1950–1993 the diurnal temperature range has decreased by 0.08°C per decade. We discuss the recent divergence of surface and satellite temperature measurements of the lower troposphere and consider the last 150 years in the context of the last millennium. We then provide a globally complete absolute surface air temperature climatology on a 1° × 1° grid. This is primarily based on data for 1961–1990. Extensive interpolation had to be undertaken over both polar regions and in a few other regions where basic data are scarce, but we believe the climatology is the most consistent and reliable of absolute surface air temperature conditions over the world. The climatology indicates that the annual average surface temperature of the world is 14.0°C (14.6°C in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 13.4°C for the Southern Hemisphere). The annual cycle of global mean temperatures follows that of the land-dominated NH, with a maximum in July of 15.9°C and a minimum in January of 12.2°C.
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed look at the diurnal cycle of the upper ocean upper ocean was provided using rapid profiling conductivity, temperature, and depth probes and vector-measuring current meters.
Abstract: Measurements made from R/P Flip using rapid profiling conductivity, temperature, and depth probes and vector-measuring current meters provide a new and detailed look at the diurnal cycle of the upper ocean. A diurnal cycle occurs when solar heating warms and stabilizes the upper ocean. This limits the downward penetration of turbulent wind mixing so that air-sea fluxes of heat and momentum are surface trapped during midday. The central problem is to learn how the trapping depth D T (mean depth value of the diurnal temperature and velocity response) is set by the competi_ng effects of wind mixing and surface heating. In this data set the diurnal range of surface temperature T s was observed to vary from 0.05 < s < 0.4oC, with most of the day-to-day variability attributable to variations of wind stress r. Wind mixing causes a pronounced asymmetry of the T s response by limiting the warming phase to only about half of the period that the surface heat flux Q is positive. The associated wind-driven current, the diurnal ........
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed trends in Canadian temperature and precipitation during the 20th century using recently updated and adjusted station data and found that from 1900 to 1998, the annual mean temperature has increased between 0.5 and 1.5°C in the south.
Abstract: Trends in Canadian temperature and precipitation during the 20th century are analyzed using recently updated and adjusted station data. Six elements, maximum, minimum and mean temperatures along with diurnal temperature range (DTR), precipitation totals and ratio of snowfall to total precipitation are investigated. Anomalies from the 1961–1990 reference period were first obtained at individual stations, and were then used to generate gridded datasets for subsequent trend analyses. Trends were computed for 1900–1998 for southern Canada (south of 60°N), and separately for 1950–1998 for the entire country, due to insufficient data in the high arctic prior to the 1950s. From 1900–1998, the annual mean temperature has increased between 0.5 and 1.5°C in the south. The warming is greater in minimum temperature than in maximum temperature in the first half of the century, resulting in a decrease of DTR. The greatest warming occurred in the west, with statistically significant increases mostly seen during...
TL;DR: In this article, a large number of atmospheric and surface boundary conditions are shown to differentially affect the maximum and minimum temperature in all seasons and in most of the regions studied, and the decrease in the daily temperature range is partially related to increases in cloud cover.
Abstract: Monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures for over 50% (10%) of the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere landmass, accounting for 37% of the global landmass, indicate that the rise of the minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times that of the maximum temperature during the period 1951–90 (0.84°C versus 0.28°C). The decrease of the diurnal temperature range is approximately equal to the increase of mean temperature. The asymmetry is detectable in all seasons and in most of the regions studied. The decrease in the daily temperature range is partially related to increases in cloud cover. Furthermore, a large number of atmospheric and surface boundary conditions are shown to differentially affect the maximum and minimum temperature. Linkages of the observed changes in the diurnal temperature range to large-scale climate forcings, such as anthropogenic increases in sulfate aerosols, greenhouse gases, or biomass burning (smoke), remain tentative. Nonetheless, the observed decrease of the diur...
TL;DR: In this article, a global archive of high-resolution (3-hourly, 0.58 latitude-longitude grid) window (11-12 mm) brightness temperature (Tb) data from multiple satellites is developed by the European Union Cloud Archive User Service (CLAUS) project.
Abstract: A global archive of high-resolution (3-hourly, 0.58 latitude‐longitude grid) window (11‐12 mm) brightness temperature (Tb) data from multiple satellites is being developed by the European Union Cloud Archive User Service (CLAUS) project. It has been used to construct a climatology of the diurnal cycle in convection, cloudiness, and surface temperature for all regions of the Tropics. An example of the application of the climatology to the evaluation of the climate version of the U.K. Met. Office Unified Model (UM), version HadAM3, is presented. The characteristics of the diurnal cycle described by the CLAUS data agree with previous observational studies, demonstrating the universality of the characteristics of the diurnal cycle for land versus ocean, clear sky versus convective regimes. It is shown that oceanic deep convection tends to reach its maximum in the early morning. Continental convection generally peaks in the evening, although there are interesting regional variations, indicative of the effects of complex land‐sea and mountain‐valley breezes, as well as the life cycle of mesoscale convective systems. A striking result from the analysis of the CLAUS data has been the extent to which the strong diurnal signal over land is spread out over the adjacent oceans, probably through gravity waves of varying depths. These coherent signals can be seen for several hundred kilometers and in some instances, such as over the Bay of Bengal, can lead to substantial diurnal variations in convection and precipitation. The example of the use of the CLAUS data in the evaluation of the Met. Office UM has demonstrated that the model has considerable difficulty in capturing the observed phase of the diurnal cycle in convection, which suggests some fundamental difficulties in the model’s physical parameterizations. Analysis of the diurnal cycle represents a powerful tool for identifying and correcting model deficiencies.