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DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitor

About: DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitor is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 632 publications have been published within this topic receiving 27082 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
03 Jul 2008-Nature
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that RNA inhibition of transcription factors can facilitate reprogramming, and that treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors can improve the overall efficiency of the reprograming process.
Abstract: Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state through the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Understanding the mechanism and kinetics of this transformation may shed light on the nature of developmental potency and suggest strategies with improved efficiency or safety. Here we report an integrative genomic analysis of reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts and B lymphocytes. Lineage-committed cells show a complex response to the ectopic expression involving induction of genes downstream of individual reprogramming factors. Fully reprogrammed cells show gene expression and epigenetic states that are highly similar to embryonic stem cells. In contrast, stable partially reprogrammed cell lines show reactivation of a distinctive subset of stem-cell-related genes, incomplete repression of lineage-specifying transcription factors, and DNA hypermethylation at pluripotency-related loci. These observations suggest that some cells may become trapped in partially reprogrammed states owing to incomplete repression of transcription factors, and that DNA de-methylation is an inefficient step in the transition to pluripotency. We demonstrate that RNA inhibition of transcription factors can facilitate reprogramming, and that treatment with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors can improve the overall efficiency of the reprogramming process.

1,377 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
27 Aug 2015-Cell
TL;DR: In melanoma patients treated with an immune checkpoint therapy, high viral defense signature expression in tumors significantly associates with durable clinical response and DNMTi treatment sensitizes to anti-CTLA4 therapy in a pre-clinical melanoma model.

1,181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The pharmacological properties of azanucleosides and their interactions with various cellular pathways are examined and an understanding of the cellular mechanisms mediating transmembrane transport and metabolic activation will be critically important for optimizing patient responses.
Abstract: The cytosine analogues 5-azacytosine (azacytidine) and 2'-deoxy-5-azacytidine (decitabine) are the currently most advanced drugs for epigenetic cancer therapies. These compounds function as DNA methyltransferase inhibitors and have shown substantial potency in reactivating epigenetically silenced tumor suppressor genes in vitro. However, it has been difficult to define the mode of action of these drugs in patients and it appears that clinical responses are influenced both by epigenetic alterations and by apoptosis induction. To maximize the clinical efficacy of azacytidine and decitabine it will be important to understand the molecular changes induced by these drugs. In this review, we examine the pharmacological properties of azanucleosides and their interactions with various cellular pathways. Because azacytidine and decitabine are prodrugs, an understanding of the cellular mechanisms mediating transmembrane transport and metabolic activation will be critically important for optimizing patient responses. We also discuss the mechanism of DNA methyltransferase inhibition and emphasize the need for the identification of predictive biomarkers for the further advancement of epigenetic therapies.

767 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Apr 1995-Cell
TL;DR: Results argue against an oncogenic effect of DNA hypomethylation and are consistent with a role for DNA methyltransferase in the generation of the C to T transitions seen at high frequency in human colorectal tumors.

728 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Epigenetic regulation of Foxp3 can be predictably controlled with DNMT inhibitors to generate functional, stable, and specific Treg.
Abstract: Foxp3, a winged-helix family transcription factor, serves as the master switch for CD4+ regulatory T cells (Treg). We identified a unique and evolutionarily conserved CpG-rich island of the Foxp3 nonintronic upstream enhancer and discovered that a specific site within it was unmethylated in natural Treg (nTreg) but heavily methylated in naive CD4+ T cells, activated CD4+ T cells, and peripheral TGFβ-induced Treg in which it was bound by DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2, and MBD2. Demethylation of this CpG site using the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Aza) induced acetylation of histone 3, interaction with TIEG1 and Sp1, and resulted in strong and stable induction of Foxp3. Conversely, IL-6 resulted in methylation of this site and repression of Foxp3 expression. Aza plus TGFβ-induced Treg resembled nTreg, expressing similar receptors, cytokines, and stable suppressive activity. Strong Foxp3 expression and suppressor activity could be induced in a variety of T cells, including human CD4+CD25− T cells. Epigenetic regulation of Foxp3 can be predictably controlled with DNMT inhibitors to generate functional, stable, and specific Treg.

507 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
202143
202042
201941
201841
201741