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Donation

About: Donation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6498 publications have been published within this topic receiving 106456 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Functional magnetic resonance imaging is used while participants anonymously donated to or opposed real charitable organizations related to major societal causes to show that the mesolimbic reward system is engaged by donations in the same way as when monetary rewards are obtained.
Abstract: Humans often sacrifice material benefits to endorse or to oppose societal causes based on moral beliefs. Charitable donation behavior, which has been the target of recent experimental economics studies, is an outstanding contemporary manifestation of this ability. Yet the neural bases of this unique aspect of human altruism, which extends beyond interpersonal interactions, remain obscure. In this article, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants anonymously donated to or opposed real charitable organizations related to major societal causes. We show that the mesolimbic reward system is engaged by donations in the same way as when monetary rewards are obtained. Furthermore, medial orbitofrontal–subgenual and lateral orbitofrontal areas, which also play key roles in more primitive mechanisms of social attachment and aversion, specifically mediate decisions to donate or to oppose societal causes. Remarkably, more anterior sectors of the prefrontal cortex are distinctively recruited when altruistic choices prevail over selfish material interests.

790 citations

BookDOI
31 Oct 2018
TL;DR: The Gift Relationship as discussed by the authors is one of the classic texts on social policy and has been widely cited as a seminal work on social welfare. But it is even more topical now in an age of AIDS and changing health care policy.
Abstract: Richard M. Titmuss's The Gift Relationship has long been acknowledged as one of the classic texts on social policy. Honored by the New York Times as one of the ten most important books of the year when it first appeared in 1970, Titmuss's The Gift Relationship is even more topical now in an age of AIDS and changing health care policy. A seemingly straightforward comparative study of blood donating in the United States and Britain, the book elegantly raises profound economic, political, and philosophical questions. Titmuss contrasts the British system of reliance on voluntary donors to the American one in which the blood supply is largely in the hands of for-profit enterprises and shows how a nonmarket system based on altruism is more effective than one that treats human blood as another commodity. This updated edition contains the original text along with new chapters that: consider the relevance of Titmuss's arguments to the AIDS and current health care crises; outline recent developments in blood donation and transfusion systems; examine the systems for human milk donation; and assess the response to the original edition and make the case for its continuing relevance today. At a time when health and welfare systems are under sustained attack from many quarters, this new edition of The Gift Relationship is essential reading for everyone interested in social policy and the future of our society.

734 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Jul 2001-JAMA
TL;DR: Specific steps can be taken by HCPs and OPO staff to maximize the opportunity to persuade families to donate their relatives' organs.
Abstract: ContextTransplantation has become the therapy of choice for patients with organ failure. However, the low rate of consent by families of donor-eligible patients is a major limiting factor in the success of organ transplantation.ObjectiveTo explore factors associated with the decision to donate among families of potential solid organ donors.Design and SettingData collection via chart reviews, telephone interviews with health care practitioners (HCPs) or organ procurement organization (OPO) staff, and face-to-face interviews with family for all donor-eligible deaths at 9 trauma hospitals in southwestern Pennsylvania and northeastern Ohio from 1994 to 1999.ParticipantsFamily members, HCPs, and OPO staff involved in the donation decision for 420 donor-eligible patients.Main Outcome MeasureFactors associated with family decision to donate or not donate organs for transplantation.ResultsA total of 238 of the 420 cases led to organ donation; 182 did not. Univariate analysis revealed numerous factors associated with the donation decision. Multivariable analysis of associated variables revealed that family and patient sociodemographics (ethnicity, patient's age and cause of death) and prior knowledge of the patients' wishes were significantly associated with willingness to donate (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 7.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.55-9.01). Families who discussed more topics and had more conversations about organ donation were more likely to donate (adjusted OR, 5.22; 95% CI, 4.32-6.30), as were families with more contact with OPO staff (adjusted OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.63-3.60) and those who experienced an optimal request pattern (adjusted OR, 2.96; 95% CI, 2.58-3.40). Socioemotional and communication variables acted as intervening variables.ConclusionsPublic education is needed to modify attitudes about organ donation prior to a donation opportunity. Specific steps can be taken by HCPs and OPO staff to maximize the opportunity to persuade families to donate their relatives' organs.

600 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Issues directly related to the organ donation process, including donor consent, donor medical suitability, non‐recovery of organs, organs recovered but not transplanted, expanded criteria donors (ECD), and donation after cardiac death (DCD), are discussed.

597 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
13 Dec 2000-JAMA
TL;DR: The person who gives consent to be a live organ donor should be competent, willing to donate, free from coercion, medically and psychosocially suitable, fully informed of the risks and benefits as a donor, and fully informed about the risks, benefits, and alternative treatment available to the recipient.
Abstract: Objective To recommend practice guidelines for transplant physicians, primary care providers, health care planners, and all those who are concerned about the well-being of the live organ donor. Participants An executive group representing the National Kidney Foundation, and the American Societies of Transplantation, Transplant Surgeons, and Nephrology formed a steering committee of 12 members to evaluate current practices of living donor transplantation of the kidney, pancreas, liver, intestine, and lung. The steering committee subsequently assembled more than 100 representatives of the transplant community (physicians, nurses, ethicists, psychologists, lawyers, scientists, social workers, transplant recipients, and living donors) at a national conference held June 1-2, 2000, in Kansas City, Mo. Consensus process Attendees participated in 7 assigned work groups. Three were organ specific (lung, liver, and kidney) and 4 were focused on social and ethical concerns (informed consent, donor source, psychosocial issues, and live organ donor registry). Work groups' deliberations were structured by a series of questions developed by the steering committee. Each work group presented its deliberations to an open plenary session of all attendees. This information was stored and shaped into a statement circulated electronically to all attendees for their comments, and finally approved by the steering committee for publication. The term consensus is not meant to convey universal agreement of the participants. The statement identifies issues of controversy; however, the wording of the entire statement is a consensus by approval of all attendees. Conclusion The person who gives consent to be a live organ donor should be competent, willing to donate, free from coercion, medically and psychosocially suitable, fully informed of the risks and benefits as a donor, and fully informed of the risks, benefits, and alternative treatment available to the recipient. The benefits to both donor and recipient must outweigh the risks associated with the donation and transplantation of the living donor organ.

537 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023771
20221,665
2021410
2020420
2019397
2018402