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Dosage compensation

About: Dosage compensation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1920 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 124589 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
Mary F. Lyon1Institutions (1)
22 Apr 1961-Nature
TL;DR: Ohno and Hauschka1 showed that in female mice one chromosome of mammary carcinoma cells and of normal diploid cells of the ovary, mammary gland and liver was heteropyKnotic and suggested that the so-called sex chromatin was composed of one heteropyknotic X-chromosome.

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Abstract: Ohno and Hauschka1 showed that in female mice one chromosome of mammary carcinoma cells and of normal diploid cells of the ovary, mammary gland and liver was heteropyknotic. They interpreted this chromosome as an X-chromosome and suggested that the so-called sex chromatin was composed of one heteropyknotic X-chromosome. They left open the question whether the heteropyknosis was shown by the paternal X-chromosome only, or the chromosome from either parent indifferently.

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3,499 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Alessandro Fatica1, Irene Bozzoni2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: The function of lncRNAs in developmental processes, such as in dosage compensation, genomic imprinting, cell differentiation and organogenesis, with a particular emphasis on mammalian development are described.

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Abstract: Genomes of multicellular organisms are characterized by the pervasive expression of different types of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) belong to a novel heterogeneous class of ncRNAs that includes thousands of different species. lncRNAs have crucial roles in gene expression control during both developmental and differentiation processes, and the number of lncRNA species increases in genomes of developmentally complex organisms, which highlights the importance of RNA-based levels of control in the evolution of multicellular organisms. In this Review, we describe the function of lncRNAs in developmental processes, such as in dosage compensation, genomic imprinting, cell differentiation and organogenesis, with a particular emphasis on mammalian development.

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2,098 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Laura Carrel1, Huntington F. Willard2Institutions (2)
17 Mar 2005-Nature
TL;DR: A comprehensive X-inactivation profile of the human X chromosome is presented, representing an estimated 95% of assayable genes in fibroblast-based test systems, and suggests a remarkable and previously unsuspected degree of expression heterogeneity among females.

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Abstract: In female mammals, most genes on one X chromosome are silenced as a result of X-chromosome inactivation. However, some genes escape X-inactivation and are expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosome. Such genes are potential contributors to sexually dimorphic traits, to phenotypic variability among females heterozygous for X-linked conditions, and to clinical abnormalities in patients with abnormal X chromosomes. Here, we present a comprehensive X-inactivation profile of the human X chromosome, representing an estimated 95% of assayable genes in fibroblast-based test systems. In total, about 15% of X-linked genes escape inactivation to some degree, and the proportion of genes escaping inactivation differs dramatically between different regions of the X chromosome, reflecting the evolutionary history of the sex chromosomes. An additional 10% of X-linked genes show variable patterns of inactivation and are expressed to different extents from some inactive X chromosomes. This suggests a remarkable and previously unsuspected degree of expression heterogeneity among females.

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1,696 citations


Book
01 Jan 1967-

1,406 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
03 Jan 1991-Nature
TL;DR: This gene, called XIST (for Xi-specific transcripts), is a candidate for a gene either involved in or uniquely influenced by the process of X inactivation, and is described as an X-linked gene with a novel expression pattern.

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Abstract: X-chromosome inactivation results in the cis-limited dosage compensation of genes on one of the pair of X chromosomes in mammalian females. Although most X-linked genes are believed to be subject to inactivation, several are known to be expressed from both active and inactive X chromosomes. Here we describe an X-linked gene with a novel expression pattern--transcripts are detected only from the inactive X chromosome (Xi) and not from the active X chromosome (Xa). This gene, called XIST (for Xi-specific transcripts), is a candidate for a gene either involved in or uniquely influenced by the process of X inactivation.

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1,308 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202183
202051
201980
201870
201778
201673

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Mitzi I. Kuroda

54 papers, 5.6K citations

Barbara J Meyer

31 papers, 3K citations

Jennifer A. Marshall Graves

28 papers, 1.7K citations

Edith Heard

28 papers, 3.8K citations

James A. Birchler

26 papers, 1.7K citations