About: Downwash is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1668 publications have been published within this topic receiving 18745 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jul 1989
TL;DR: In this article, a prediction method for the self-generated noise of an airfoil blade encountering smooth flow was developed for a large scale-model helicopter rotor, and the predictions compared well with experimental broadband noise measurements.
Abstract: A prediction method is developed for the self-generated noise of an airfoil blade encountering smooth flow. The prediction methods for the individual self-noise mechanisms are semiempirical and are based on previous theoretical studies and data obtained from tests of two- and three-dimensional airfoil blade sections. The self-noise mechanisms are due to specific boundary-layer phenomena, that is, the boundary-layer turbulence passing the trailing edge, separated-boundary-layer and stalled flow over an airfoil, vortex shedding due to laminar boundary layer instabilities, vortex shedding from blunt trailing edges, and the turbulent vortex flow existing near the tip of lifting blades. The predictions are compared successfully with published data from three self-noise studies of different airfoil shapes. An application of the prediction method is reported for a large scale-model helicopter rotor, and the predictions compared well with experimental broadband noise measurements. A computer code of the method is given.
TL;DR: In this paper, the lift and moment acting upon an airfoil in the two-dimensional case may be calculated directly from simple physical considerations of momentum and moment of momentum after a calculation of the induction effects of a wake vortex.
Abstract: The basic conceptions of the circulation theory of airfoils are reviewed briefly, and the mechanism by which a “wake” of vorticity is produced by an airfoil in non-uniform motion is pointed out It is shown how the lift and moment acting upon an airfoil in the two-dimensional case may be calculated directly from simple physical considerations of momentum and moment of momentum After a calculation of the induction effects of a wake vortex, formulae for the lift and moment are obtained which are applicable to all cases of motion of a two-dimensional thin airfoil in which the wake produced is approximately flat; ie, in which the movement of the airfoil normal to its mean path is small The general results are applied first to the case of an oscillating airfoil and then to the problem of a plane airfoil entering a “sharp-edged” gust In the latter case the rate of increase of the lift after the entrance of the airfoil into the gust boundary is determined, and it is shown that during the entire process the lift acts at the quarter-chord point of the airfoil The intention of the authors has been to make the airfoil theory of non-uniform motion more accessible to engineers by showing the physical significance of the various steps of the mathematical deductions, and to present the results of the theory in a form suitable for immediate application to certain flutter and gust problems
TL;DR: The wake capture force represents a truly unsteady phenomenon dependent on temporal changes in the distribution and magnitude of vorticity during stroke reversal and is well explained by a quasi-steady model.
Abstract: We used two-dimensional digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to visualize flow patterns around the flapping wing of a dynamically scaled robot for a series of reciprocating strokes starting from rest. The base of the wing was equipped with strain gauges so that the pattern of fluid motion could be directly compared with the time history of force production. The results show that the development and shedding of vortices throughout each stroke are highly stereotyped and influence force generation in subsequent strokes. When a wing starts from rest, it generates a transient force as the leading edge vortex (LEV) grows. This early peak, previously attributed to added-mass acceleration, is not amenable to quasi-steady models but corresponds well to calculations based on the time derivative of the first moment of vorticity within a sectional slice of fluid. Forces decay to a stable level as the LEV reaches a constant size and remains attached throughout most of the stroke. The LEV grows as the wing supinates prior to stroke reversal, accompanied by an increase in total force. At stroke reversal, both the LEV and a rotational starting vortex (RSV) are shed into the wake, forming a counter-rotating pair that directs a jet of fluid towards the underside of the wing at the start of the next stroke. We isolated the aerodynamic influence of the wake by subtracting forces and flow fields generated in the first stroke, when the wake is just developing, from those produced during the fourth stroke, when the pattern of both the forces and wake dynamics has reached a limit cycle. This technique identified two effects of the wake on force production by the wing: an early augmentation followed by a small attenuation. The later decrease in force is consistent with the influence of a decreased aerodynamic angle of attack on translational forces caused by downwash within the wake and is well explained by a quasi-steady model. The early effect of the wake is not well approximated by a quasi-steady model, even when the magnitude and orientation of the instantaneous velocity field are taken into account. Thus, the wake capture force represents a truly unsteady phenomenon dependent on temporal changes in the distribution and magnitude of vorticity during stroke reversal.
••26 Jun 2010
TL;DR: The workshop is focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-alone configuarations that are representative of transonic transport aircraft.
Abstract: Results from the Fourth AIAA Drag Prediction Workshop (DPW-IV) are summarized. The workshop focused on the prediction of both absolute and differential drag levels for wing-body and wing-body-horizontal-tail configurations that are representative of transonic transport air- craft. Numerical calculations are performed using industry-relevant test cases that include lift- specific flight conditions, trimmed drag polars, downwash variations, dragrises and Reynolds- number effects. Drag, lift and pitching moment predictions from numerous Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics methods are presented. Solutions are performed on structured, unstructured and hybrid grid systems. The structured-grid sets include point- matched multi-block meshes and over-set grid systems. The unstructured and hybrid grid sets are comprised of tetrahedral, pyramid, prismatic, and hexahedral elements. Effort is made to provide a high-quality and parametrically consistent family of grids for each grid type about each configuration under study. The wing-body-horizontal families are comprised of a coarse, medium and fine grid; an optional extra-fine grid augments several of the grid families. These mesh sequences are utilized to determine asymptotic grid-convergence characteristics of the solution sets, and to estimate grid-converged absolute drag levels of the wing-body-horizontal configuration using Richardson extrapolation.
TL;DR: In this paper, the formation-hold autopilots are designed to maintain the geometry of the formation in the face of lead aircraft maneuvers, where the wing and lead aircraft dynamics are coupled due to kinematic effects.
Abstract: Thetightformatione ightcontrolproblemisaddressed.Theformationconsistsofa lead andwingaircraft,where the wing e ies in tight formation with the lead, such that the lead’ s trailing vortices aerodynamically couple the lead and the wing, and a reduction in the formation’ s induced drag is achieved. A controller (i.e., a formation-hold autopilot for the wing aircraft ) is designed such that the formation’ s geometry is maintained in the face of lead aircraft maneuvers. In the formation e ight control system, the wing and lead aircraft dynamics are coupled due to kinematic effects, and, in the case of tight formations, additional aerodynamic coupling effects are introduced. These additional aerodynamic coupling effects are properly modeled. The most signie cant aerodynamic coupling effect introduced by tight formation e ight entails the coupling of the lateral/directional channel into the altitudehold autopilot channel. It is shown that formation-hold autopilots designed ignoring the aerodynamic coupling effect yield satisfactory performance in tight formation e ight. Nomenclature b = wingspan of wing CLL = lift coefe cient of the lead aircraft S = surface area of wing VSW = sidewash W = wash vector WUW = upwash
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