Topic

# Drag

About: Drag is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 43840 publications have been published within this topic receiving 769289 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe a theoretical investigation into the response of a spherical particle to a one-dimensional fluid flow, and the motion of the spherical particle in a uniform 2D fluid flow about a circular cylinder.

Abstract: This paper describes a theoretical investigation into (i) the response of a spherical particle to a one-dimensional fluid flow, (ii) the motion of a spherical particle in a uniform two-dimensional fluid flow about a circular cylinder and (iii) the motion of a particle about a lifting aerofoil section. In all three cases the drag of the particle is allowed to vary with (instantaneous) Reynolds number by using an analytical approximation to the standard experimental drag-Reynolds-number relationship for spherical particles.

2,401 citations

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Royal Society

^{1}TL;DR: The physical and chemical condition of emulsions of two fluids which do not mix has been the subject of many studies, but very little seems to be known about the mechanics of the stirring processes which are used in making them.

Abstract: The physical and chemical condition of emulsions of two fluids which do not mix has been the subject of many studies, but very little seems to be known about the mechanics of the stirring processes which are used in making them. The conditions which govern the breaking up of a jet of one fluid projected into another have been studied by Rayleigh and others, but most of these studies have been concerned with the effect of surface tension or dynamical forces in making a cylindrical thread unstable so that it breaks into drops. The mode of formation of the cylindrical thread has not been discussed. As a rule in experimental work it has been formed by projecting one liquid into the other under pressure through a hole. It seems that studies of this kind which neglect the disruptive effect of the viscous drag of one fluid on the other, though interesting in themselves, tell us very little about the manner in which two liquids can be stirred together to form an emulsion. When one liquid is at rest in another liquid of the same density it assumes the form of a spherical drop. Any movement of the out er fluid (apart from pure rotation or translation) will distort the drop owing to the dynamical and viscous forces which then act on its surface. Surface tension, however, will tend to keep the drop spherical. When the drop is very small, or the liquid very viscous, the stresses due to inertia will be small compared with those due to viscosity.

2,250 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the vertical distribution of horizontal mean wind in the lowest 8 metres over a reservoir (1·6 km × 1 km) has been measured using sensitive anemometers freely exposed from a fixed mast in water 16 m deep, the fetch being more than 1 km.

Abstract: The vertical distribution of horizontal mean wind in the lowest 8 metres over a reservoir (1·6 km × 1 km) has been measured using sensitive anemometers freely exposed from a fixed mast in water 16 m deep, the fetch being more than 1 km. The resulting profiles are closely logarithmic, the small differences being systematic and possibly due to the thermal instability which existed when the measurements were made.
The usual law for wind profiles in neutral stability is
where u is the wind speed at height z, k is von Karman's constant, log z (0) the intercept on the log z axis, and u* the so-called friction velocity defined by τ0 = pu, τ0 being the surface drag and rH the density of the air.
To characterize the profiles u*/k, their slope, was plotted in relation to z (0), their intercept; this allowed a direct comparison with other profiles, in particular those recently measured in a laboratory channel by Sibul. The agreement was better than expected and indicated that z (0) was comparatively independent of fetch and stability but was largely determined by u*. The relation between u* and z (0) agreed roughly with the simplest non-dimensional relation between them, gz (0)/u = constant, so that one is led to a generalized wind profile for flow over a water surface
which specifies the drag, given the wind at one known height. An approximate value of the constant is 12·5.
This expression can be compared with earlier work. The better wind-profile observations show rough agreement; the experimental scatter is necessarily large since a water surface is aerodynamically much smoother than most land surfaces, precision anemometry in difficult circumstances being required to provide sufficiently precise values. Oceanographic measurements of the tilt of water surfaces are in fair agreement at high wind speeds but at low wind speeds the data are conflicting. The early results which imply that the drag-coefficient (u/u2) increases with decreasing wind speed in light winds are thought to be in error; some support for this belief comes from recent estimates of drag using a modified ageostrophic technique, which agree roughly among themselves and with the general expression.

1,792 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the relative motion correlations for dispersed two-phase flows of bubbles, drops, and particles were developed from simple similarity criteria and a mixture viscosity model, and satisfactory agreements were obtained at wide ranges of the particle concentration and Reynolds number.

Abstract: Drag coefficient and relative motion correlations for dispersed two-phase flows of bubbles, drops, and particles were developed from simple similarity criteria and a mixture viscosity model. The results are compared with a number of experimental data, and satisfactory agreements are obtained at wide ranges of the particle concentration and Reynolds number. Characteristics differences between fluid particle systems and solid particle systems at higher Reynolds numbers or at higher concentration regimes were successfully predicted by the model. Results showed that the drag law in various dispersed two-phase flows could be put on a general and unified base by the present method.

1,685 citations

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TL;DR: The experiments of McDonald and his co-workers have shown that in the larger arteries of the rabbit and the dog there is a reversal of the flow, and the simple mathematical treatment has strong similarities with the theory of the distribution of alternating current in a conductor of finite size.

Abstract: The experiments of McDonald and his co-workers (McDonald, 1952, 1955; Helps & McDonald, 1953) have shown that in the larger arteries of the rabbit and the dog there is a reversal of the flow. Measurements of the pressure gradient (Helps & McDonald, 1953) showed a phase-lag between pressure gradient and flow somewhat analogous with the phase-lag between voltage and current in a conductor carrying alternating current, and the simple mathematical treatment given below has strong similarities with the theory of the distribution of alternating current in a conductor of finite size.

1,675 citations