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Dram

About: Dram is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7473 publications have been published within this topic receiving 120785 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Eyeriss as mentioned in this paper is an accelerator for state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that optimizes for the energy efficiency of the entire system, including the accelerator chip and off-chip DRAM, by reconfiguring the architecture.
Abstract: Eyeriss is an accelerator for state-of-the-art deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs). It optimizes for the energy efficiency of the entire system, including the accelerator chip and off-chip DRAM, for various CNN shapes by reconfiguring the architecture. CNNs are widely used in modern AI systems but also bring challenges on throughput and energy efficiency to the underlying hardware. This is because its computation requires a large amount of data, creating significant data movement from on-chip and off-chip that is more energy-consuming than computation. Minimizing data movement energy cost for any CNN shape, therefore, is the key to high throughput and energy efficiency. Eyeriss achieves these goals by using a proposed processing dataflow, called row stationary (RS), on a spatial architecture with 168 processing elements. RS dataflow reconfigures the computation mapping of a given shape, which optimizes energy efficiency by maximally reusing data locally to reduce expensive data movement, such as DRAM accesses. Compression and data gating are also applied to further improve energy efficiency. Eyeriss processes the convolutional layers at 35 frames/s and 0.0029 DRAM access/multiply and accumulation (MAC) for AlexNet at 278 mW (batch size $N = 4$ ), and 0.7 frames/s and 0.0035 DRAM access/MAC for VGG-16 at 236 mW ( $N = 3$ ).

2,165 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2009
TL;DR: This work proposes, crafted from a fundamental understanding of PCM technology parameters, area-neutral architectural enhancements that address these limitations and make PCM competitive with DRAM.
Abstract: Memory scaling is in jeopardy as charge storage and sensing mechanisms become less reliable for prevalent memory technologies, such as DRAM. In contrast, phase change memory (PCM) storage relies on scalable current and thermal mechanisms. To exploit PCM's scalability as a DRAM alternative, PCM must be architected to address relatively long latencies, high energy writes, and finite endurance.We propose, crafted from a fundamental understanding of PCM technology parameters, area-neutral architectural enhancements that address these limitations and make PCM competitive with DRAM. A baseline PCM system is 1.6x slower and requires 2.2x more energy than a DRAM system. Buffer reorganizations reduce this delay and energy gap to 1.2x and 1.0x, using narrow rows to mitigate write energy and multiple rows to improve locality and write coalescing. Partial writes enhance memory endurance, providing 5.6 years of lifetime. Process scaling will further reduce PCM energy costs and improve endurance.

1,568 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 Jun 2009
TL;DR: This paper analyzes a PCM-based hybrid main memory system using an architecture level model of PCM and proposes simple organizational and management solutions of the hybrid memory that reduces the write traffic to PCM, boosting its lifetime from 3 years to 9.7 years.
Abstract: The memory subsystem accounts for a significant cost and power budget of a computer system. Current DRAM-based main memory systems are starting to hit the power and cost limit. An alternative memory technology that uses resistance contrast in phase-change materials is being actively investigated in the circuits community. Phase Change Memory (PCM) devices offer more density relative to DRAM, and can help increase main memory capacity of future systems while remaining within the cost and power constraints.In this paper, we analyze a PCM-based hybrid main memory system using an architecture level model of PCM.We explore the trade-offs for a main memory system consisting of PCMstorage coupled with a small DRAM buffer. Such an architecture has the latency benefits of DRAM and the capacity benefits of PCM. Our evaluations for a baseline system of 16-cores with 8GB DRAM show that, on average, PCM can reduce page faults by 5X and provide a speedup of 3X. As PCM is projected to have limited write endurance, we also propose simple organizational and management solutions of the hybrid memory that reduces the write traffic to PCM, boosting its lifetime from 3 years to 9.7 years.

1,451 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
13 Jun 2015
TL;DR: This paper proposes an accelerator which is 60x more energy efficient than the previous state-of-the-art neural network accelerator, designed down to the layout at 65 nm, with a modest footprint and consuming only 320 mW, but still about 30x faster than high-end GPUs.
Abstract: In recent years, neural network accelerators have been shown to achieve both high energy efficiency and high performance for a broad application scope within the important category of recognition and mining applications. Still, both the energy efficiency and performance of such accelerators remain limited by memory accesses. In this paper, we focus on image applications, arguably the most important category among recognition and mining applications. The neural networks which are state-of-the-art for these applications are Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), and they have an important property: weights are shared among many neurons, considerably reducing the neural network memory footprint. This property allows to entirely map a CNN within an SRAM, eliminating all DRAM accesses for weights. By further hoisting this accelerator next to the image sensor, it is possible to eliminate all remaining DRAM accesses, i.e., for inputs and outputs. In this paper, we propose such a CNN accelerator, placed next to a CMOS or CCD sensor. The absence of DRAM accesses combined with a careful exploitation of the specific data access patterns within CNNs allows us to design an accelerator which is 60× more energy efficient than the previous state-of-the-art neural network accelerator. We present a full design down to the layout at 65 nm, with a modest footprint of 4.86mm2 and consuming only 320mW, but still about 30× faster than high-end GPUs.

1,005 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jun 2014
TL;DR: This paper exposes the vulnerability of commodity DRAM chips to disturbance errors, and shows that it is possible to corrupt data in nearby addresses by reading from the same address in DRAM by activating the same row inDRAM.
Abstract: Memory isolation is a key property of a reliable and secure computing system--an access to one memory address should not have unintended side effects on data stored in other addresses. However, as DRAM process technology scales down to smaller dimensions, it becomes more difficult to prevent DRAM cells from electrically interacting with each other. In this paper, we expose the vulnerability of commodity DRAM chips to disturbance errors. By reading from the same address in DRAM, we show that it is possible to corrupt data in nearby addresses. More specifically, activating the same row in DRAM corrupts data in nearby rows. We demonstrate this phenomenon on Intel and AMD systems using a malicious program that generates many DRAM accesses. We induce errors in most DRAM modules (110 out of 129) from three major DRAM manufacturers. From this we conclude that many deployed systems are likely to be at risk. We identify the root cause of disturbance errors as the repeated toggling of a DRAM row's wordline, which stresses inter-cell coupling effects that accelerate charge leakage from nearby rows. We provide an extensive characterization study of disturbance errors and their behavior using an FPGA-based testing platform. Among our key findings, we show that (i) it takes as few as 139K accesses to induce an error and (ii) up to one in every 1.7K cells is susceptible to errors. After examining various potential ways of addressing the problem, we propose a low-overhead solution to prevent the errors

999 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023241
2022551
2021183
2020254
2019304
2018319