About: Drought tolerance is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 13343 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 368081 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The effects of drought stress on the growth, phenology, water and nutrient relations, photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, and respiration in plants, and the mechanism of drought resistance in plants on a morphological, physiological and molecular basis are reviewed.
Abstract: Scarcity of water is a severe environmental constraint to plant productivity. Drought-induced loss in crop yield probably exceeds losses from all other causes, since both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Here, we have reviewed the effects of drought stress on the growth, phenology, water and nutrient relations, photosynthesis, assimilate partitioning, and respiration in plants. This article also describes the mechanism of drought resistance in plants on a morphological, physiological and molecular basis. Various management strategies have been proposed to cope with drought stress. Drought stress reduces leaf size, stem extension and root proliferation, disturbs plant water relations and reduces water-use efficiency. Plants display a variety of physiological and biochemical responses at cellular and whole-organism levels towards prevailing drought stress, thus making it a complex phenomenon. CO2 assimilation by leaves is reduced mainly by stomatal closure, membrane damage and disturbed activity of various enzymes, especially those of CO2 fixation and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. Enhanced metabolite flux through the photorespiratory pathway increases the oxidative load on the tissues as both processes generate reactive oxygen species. Injury caused by reactive oxygen species to biological macromolecules under drought stress is among the major deterrents to growth. Plants display a range of mechanisms to withstand drought stress. The major mechanisms include curtailed water loss by increased diffusive resistance, enhanced water uptake with prolific and deep root systems and its efficient use, and smaller and succulent leaves to reduce the transpirational loss. Among the nutrients, potassium ions help in osmotic adjustment; silicon increases root endodermal silicification and improves the cell water balance. Low-molecular-weight osmolytes, including glycinebetaine, proline and other amino acids, organic acids, and polyols, are crucial to sustain cellular functions under drought. Plant growth substances such as salicylic acid, auxins, gibberrellins, cytokinin and abscisic acid modulate the plant responses towards drought. Polyamines, citrulline and several enzymes act as antioxidants and reduce the adverse effects of water deficit. At molecular levels several drought-responsive genes and transcription factors have been identified, such as the dehydration-responsive element-binding gene, aquaporin, late embryogenesis abundant proteins and dehydrins. Plant drought tolerance can be managed by adopting strategies such as mass screening and breeding, marker-assisted selection and exogenous application of hormones and osmoprotectants to seed or growing plants, as well as engineering for drought resistance.
01 Feb 2009-Annals of Botany
TL;DR: It is becoming apparent that plants perceive and respond to drought and salt stresses by quickly altering gene expression in parallel with physiological and biochemical alterations; this occurs even under mild to moderate stress conditions.
Abstract: Background Plants are often subjected to periods of soil and atmospheric water deficits during their life cycle as well as, in many areas of the globe, to high soil salinity. Understanding how plants respond to drought, salt and co-occurring stresses can play a major role in stabilizing crop performance under drought and saline conditions and in the protection of natural vegetation. Photosynthesis, together with cell growth, is among the primary processes to be affected by water or salt stress.
••30 May 1996
TL;DR: A large number of genes with a potential role in drought tolerance have been described, and major themes in the molecular response have been established.
Abstract: Molecular studies of drought stress in plants use a variety of strategies and include different species subjected to a wide range of water deficits. Initial research has by necessity been largely descriptive, and relevant genes have been identified either by reference to physiological evidence or by differential screening. A large number of genes with a potential role in drought tolerance have been described, and major themes in the molecular response have been established. Particular areas of importance are sugar metabolism and late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) proteins. Studies have begun to examine mechanisms that control the gene expression, and putative regulatory pathways have been established. Recent attempts to understand gene function have utilized transgenic plants. These efforts are of clear agronomic importance.
01 Dec 2013
TL;DR: A quantitative approach to plant-environment interactions is presented in this paper, where a quantitative approach is used to quantify the plant's environment interactions, including radiation, heat, mass and momentum transfer, energy balance and evaporation.
Abstract: Frontispiece Preface to the second edition Preface to the first edition Main symbols and abbreviations 1. A quantitative approach to plant-environment interactions 2. Radiation 3. Heat, mass and momentum transfer 4. Plant-water relations 5. Energy balance and evaporation 6. Stomata 7. Photosynthesis and respiration 8. Light and plant development 9. Temperature 10. Drought and drought tolerance 11. Wind, altitude, carbon dioxide and atmospheric pollutants 12. Physiology and yield improvement Appendices References Index.
01 Mar 1999-Nature Biotechnology
TL;DR: This article showed that over-expression of the cDNA encoding DREB1A in transgenic plants activated the expression of many of these stress tolerance genes under normal growing conditions and resulted in improved tolerance to drought, salt loading, and freezing.
Abstract: Plant productivity is greatly affected by environmental stresses such as drought, salt loading, and freezing. We reported previously that a cis-acting promoter element, the dehydration response element (DRE), plays an important role in regulating gene expression in response to these stresses. The transcription factor DREB1A specifically interacts with the DRE and induces expression of stress tolerance genes. We show here that overexpression of the cDNA encoding DREB1A in transgenic plants activated the expression of many of these stress tolerance genes under normal growing conditions and resulted in improved tolerance to drought, salt loading, and freezing. However, use of the strong constitutive 35S cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) promoter to drive expression of DREB1A also resulted in severe growth retardation under normal growing conditions. In contrast, expression of DREB1A from the stress inducible rd29A promoter gave rise to minimal effects on plant growth while providing an even greater tolerance to stress conditions than did expression of the gene from the CaMV promoter.
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