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Drug resistance

About: Drug resistance is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 28431 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1120963 citation(s). more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1469-0691.2011.03570.X
A-P Magiorakos1, Arjun Srinivasan2, R B Carey2, Yehuda Carmeli3  +14 moreInstitutions (11)
Abstract: Many different definitions for multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacteria are being used in the medical literature to characterize the different patterns of resistance found in healthcare-associated, antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. A group of international experts came together through a joint initiative by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), to create a standardized international terminology with which to describe acquired resistance profiles in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacteriaceae (other than Salmonella and Shigella), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., all bacteria often responsible for healthcare-associated infections and prone to multidrug resistance. Epidemiologically significant antimicrobial categories were constructed for each bacterium. Lists of antimicrobial categories proposed for antimicrobial susceptibility testing were created using documents and breakpoints from the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). MDR was defined as acquired non-susceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories, XDR was defined as non-susceptibility to at least one agent in all but two or fewer antimicrobial categories (i.e. bacterial isolates remain susceptible to only one or two categories) and PDR was defined as non-susceptibility to all agents in all antimicrobial categories. To ensure correct application of these definitions, bacterial isolates should be tested against all or nearly all of the antimicrobial agents within the antimicrobial categories and selective reporting and suppression of results should be avoided. more

6,403 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRC706
Abstract: Chemotherapeutics are the most effective treatment for metastatic tumours. However, the ability of cancer cells to become simultaneously resistant to different drugs--a trait known as multidrug resistance--remains a significant impediment to successful chemotherapy. Three decades of multidrug-resistance research have identified a myriad of ways in which cancer cells can elude chemotherapy, and it has become apparent that resistance exists against every effective drug, even our newest agents. Therefore, the ability to predict and circumvent drug resistance is likely to improve chemotherapy. more

4,754 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1086/591861
Abstract: Objective. To describe antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) during 2009-2010. Methods. Central line-associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and surgical site infections were included. Pooled mean proportions of isolates interpreted as resistant (or, in some cases, nonsusceptible) to selected antimicrobial agents were calculated by type of HAI and compared to historical data. Results. Overall, 2,039 hospitals reported 1 or more HAIs; 1,749 (86%) were general acute care hospitals, and 1,143 (56%) had fewer than 200 beds. There were 69,475 HAIs and 81,139 pathogens reported. Eight pathogen groups accounted for about 80% of reported pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus (16%), Enterococcus spp. (14%), Escherichia coli (12%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (11%), Candida spp. (9%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (and Klebsiella oxytoca; 8%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%), and Enterobacter spp. (5%). The percentage of resistance was similar to that reported in the previous 2-year period, with a slight decrease in the percentage of S. aureus resistant to oxacillins (MRSA). Nearly 20% of pathogens reported from all HAIs were the following multidrug-resistant phenotypes: MRSA (8.5%); vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (3%); extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca (2%), E. coli (2%), and Enterobacter spp. (2%); and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa (2%), K. pneumoniae/oxytoca (<1%), E, coli (<1%), and Enterobacter spp. (<1%). Among facilities reporting HAIs with 1 of the above gram-negative bacteria, 20%-40% reported at least 1 with the resistant phenotype. Conclusion. While the proportion of resistant isolates did not substantially change from that in the previous 2 years, multidrug-resistant gram-negative phenotypes were reported from a moderate proportion of facilities. more

Topics: Drug resistance (50%), Klebsiella oxytoca (50%)

3,229 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0966-842X(00)01913-2
Thien-Fah Mah1, George A. O'Toole1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. It has become clear that biofilm-grown cells express properties distinct from planktonic cells, one of which is an increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. Recent work has indicated that slow growth and/or induction of an rpoS-mediated stress response could contribute to biocide resistance. The physical and/or chemical structure of exopolysaccharides or other aspects of biofilm architecture could also confer resistance by exclusion of biocides from the bacterial community. Finally, biofilm-grown bacteria might develop a biofilm-specific biocide-resistant phenotype. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the biofilm, it is likely that there are multiple resistance mechanisms at work within a single community. Recent research has begun to shed light on how and why surface-attached microbial communities develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. more

Topics: Biofilm (56%), Drug resistance (52%), Antimicrobial (50%)

3,223 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JAC/DKS261
Abstract: Objectives Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data. more

Topics: Drug resistance (54%)

3,131 Citations

No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Mark A. Wainberg

55 papers, 3K citations

Douglas D. Richman

44 papers, 9.9K citations

Deenan Pillay

35 papers, 5.5K citations

Ronald N. Jones

32 papers, 4.2K citations

Anne-Mieke Vandamme

31 papers, 2K citations

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