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Dust explosion

About: Dust explosion is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1473 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 16140 citation(s). more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Tasneem Abbasi1, Shahid Abbas Abbasi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Dust explosions pose the most serious and widespread of explosion hazards in the process industry alongside vapour cloud explosions (VCE) and boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions (BLEVE). Dust explosions almost always lead to serious financial losses in terms of damage to facilities and down time. They also often cause serious injuries to personnel, and fatalities. We present the gist of the dust explosion state-of-the-art. Illustrative case studies and past accident analyses reflect the high frequency, geographic spread, and damage potential of dust explosions across the world. The sources and triggers of dust explosions, and the measures with which different factors associated with dust explosions can be quantified are reviewed alongside dust explosion mechanism. The rest of the review is focused on the ways available to prevent dust explosion, and on cushioning the impact of a dust explosion by venting when the accident does take place. more

352 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Kenneth L. Cashdollar1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper is an overview of and introduction to the subject of dust explosions. The purpose is to provide information on the explosibility and ignitability properties of dust clouds that can be used to improve safety in industries that generate, process, use, or transport combustible dusts. The requirements for a dust explosion are: a combustible dust, dispersed in air, a concentration above the flammable limit, the presence of a sufficiently energetic ignition source, and some confinement. An explosion of a fuel in air involves the rapid oxidation of combustible material, leading to a rapid increase in temperature and pressure. The violence of an explosion is related to the rate of energy release due to chemical reactions relative to the degree of confinement and heat losses. The combustion properties of a dust depend on its chemical and physical characteristics, especially its particle size distribution. In this paper, the explosion characteristics of combustible dusts will be compared and contrasted with those of flammable gases, using methane as an example. These characteristics include minimum explosible concentration, maximum explosion pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, limiting oxygen concentration, ignition temperature, and amount of inert dust necessary to prevent flame propagation. The parameters considered include the effects of dust volatility, dust particle size, turbulence, initial pressure, initial temperature, and oxygen concentration. Both carbonaceous and metal dusts will be used as examples. The goal of this research is to better understand the fundamental aspects of dust explosions. more

275 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Rolf K. Eckhoff1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Dust explosions in the process industries practically always start inside process equipment such as mills, dryers, mixers, classifiers, conveyors, and storage silos and hoppers. For any given dust type the ease with which dust clouds ignite and the rates with which they burn, vary considerably with factors well known in powder science and technology. The key factors include the primary particle size distribution of the dust, the degree of de-agglomeration of the dust particles in the cloud, the dust concentration distribution in the cloud, and the cloud turbulence. The last three factors are entirely dependent on the actual process situation in which the dust cloud is generated and sustained. The paper first discusses influences of these factors on the ignition sensitivity and explosion violence of dust clouds. Secondly, the concept of inherently safer process design to prevent accidental dust explosions is discussed, using design of hoppers and silos as an example. Then some consequences of the mentioned factors in design of mitigatory measures such as explosion isolation, explosion venting, and automatic explosion suppression, are discussed. The role of powder science and technology in understanding development and propagation of secondary dust explosions is also considered. more

138 citations

14 Nov 1989-
Abstract: 1 Introduction.- 2 Historical Review.- 2.1 Occurrence of Dust Explosions.- 2.2 The Nature of Dust Explosions.- 2.3 Apparatus for the Testing of Airborne Dusts.- 3 Dust as a Dispersed Substance.- 4 Material Safety Specifications.- 4.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 4.2 Material Safety Specifications of Dust Layers (G. Zwahlen).- 4.2.1 Flammability.- 4.2.2 Burning Behavior.- Combustibility Test at Room Temperature.- Combustibility Test at Elevated Temperature.- Burning Rate Test.- 4.2.3 Deflagration.- Screening Test for Deflagration.- Laboratory Test for Deflagration.- 4.2.4 Smolder Temperature.- Determination of the Smolder Temperature.- 4.2.5 Autoignition.- Determination of the Relative Autoignition Temperature, as per Grewer.- Hot Storage Test in the Wire Mesh Basket.- 4.2.6 Exothermic Decomposition.- Determination of the Exothermic Decomposition Temperature in an Open Vessel, as per Lutolf.- Determination of an Exothermic Decomposition in an Oven Purged with Nitrogen, as per Grewer.- Differential Thermal Analysis.- Determination of an Exothermic Decomposition Under Choked Heat Flow.- 4.2.7 Explosibility.- Impact Sensitivity.- Friction Sensitivity.- Thermal Sensitivity.- 4.3 Material Safety Specifications for Dust Clouds Describing the Explosion Behavior.- 4.3.1 Combustible Dusts.- Preliminary Remarks.- Particle Size Distribution.- Explosibility.- Explosible Limits.- Explosion Pressure Versus Explosion Violence.- 4.3.2 Flock.- Preliminary Remarks.- Explosible Limits.- Explosion Pressure/Violence of Explosion.- 4.3.3 Hybrid Mixtures.- Preliminary Remarks.- Explosible Limits.- Explosion Pressure /Violence of Explosion.- 4.3.4 Conclusions.- 4.4 Safety Characteristics of Airborne Dust Describing the Ignition Behavior.- 4.4.1 Minimum Ignition Energy.- Preliminary Remarks.- Apparatus for the Determination of the Minimum Ignition Energy.- Ignition Behavior of Combustible Dusts.- Ignition Behavior of Flock.- Ignition Behavior of Hybrid Mixtures.- Conclusions.- 4.4.2 Ignition Temperature.- Preliminary Remarks.- Apparatus for Temperature Determination.- Ignition Effectiveness of a Glowing Coil.- Conclusions.- 4.5 Safety Characteristics of Airborne Dusts Describing the Course of an Explosion in Pipelines.- 5 Protective Measures Against the Occurrence and Effects of Dust Explosions.- 5.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 5.2. Preventive Explosion Protection.- 5.2.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 5.2.2 Prevention of Explosible Dust/Air Mixtures.- 5.2.3 Prevention of Dust Explosions by Using Inert Matter.- Admixture of Nitrogen.- Preliminary Remarks.- Combustible Dusts.- Hybrid Mixtures.- UseofVacuum.- Admixture of Solids.- 5.2.4 Prevention of Effective Ignition Sources.- Preliminary Remarks.- Mechanically Generated Sparks.- 5.2.5 Hot Surfaces/Autoignition.- 5.2.6 Static Electricity.- 5.2.7 Conclusions.- 5.3 Explosion Protectio'n Through Design Measures.- 5.3.1 Preliminary Remarks.- 5.3.2 Explosion Pressure-resistant Design for the Maximum Explosion Pressure.- Explosion Pressure-resistant Design.- Explosion Pressure Shock-resistant Design.- 5.3.3 Explosion Pressure-resistant Design for a Reduced Maximum Explosion Pressure in Conjunction with Explosion Pressure Venting.- Preliminary Remarks.- Explosion Pressure Venting of Vessels.- Explosion Pressure Venting of Elongated Vessels (Silos).- Explosion Pressure Venting of Pipelines.- 5.3.4 Explosion-resistant Construction for Reduced Maximum Explosion Pressure in Conjunction with Explosion Suppression.- 5.3.5 Technical Diversion or Arresting of Explosions.- Preliminary Remarks.- Extinguishing Barrier.- RotaryAir Locks (Rotary Valves).- Rapid-Action Valves: Gate or Butterfly Type.- Rapid-Action Valve: Float Type.- Explosion Diverter.- 5.3.6 Conclusions.- 6 Concluding Remarks.- 7 Acknowledgements.- 8 Appendix.- 8.1 Explosion Pressure Venting.- 8.1.1 Vessel: Area Determination by Calculation or Nomogram.- 8.1.2 Elongated Vessels (Silos).- 9 References.- 10 Symbols and Abbreviations.- 11 Conversion Factors.- 12 Subject Index. more

134 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Paul Amyotte1Institutions (1)
Abstract: This paper is a review of the use of inert dusts to reduce the risk of dust explosions through both prevention and mitigation schemes. The review is conducted by referring primarily to the research results of the author and his colleagues in this area, with appropriate reference to the work of other researchers. A functional distinction is first made between inerting and suppression by explaining each term within the contexts of explosion prevention and explosion mitigation, respectively. The use of solid inertants is then described in terms of the various inhibitor and situation-specific parameters that can influence their effectiveness. Finally, application examples of the research results are given for research laboratories, test facilities, design engineers, and industrial practitioners. more

131 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Paul Amyotte

48 papers, 1.4K citations

Rolf K. Eckhoff

28 papers, 866 citations

Olivier Dufaud

24 papers, 536 citations

Faisal Khan

20 papers, 683 citations

Laurent Perrin

17 papers, 366 citations