scispace - formally typeset
Topic

Duty cycle

About: Duty cycle is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 29008 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 299389 citation(s). The topic is also known as: duty factor & on time.

...read more

Papers
  More

Proceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1145/958491.958512
Tijs van Dam1, Koen Langendoen1Institutions (1)
05 Nov 2003-
Abstract: In this paper we describe T-MAC, a contention-based Medium Access Control protocol for wireless sensor networks. Applications for these networks have some characteristics (low message rate, insensitivity to latency) that can be exploited to reduce energy consumption by introducing an activesleep duty cycle. To handle load variations in time and location T-MAC introduces an adaptive duty cycle in a novel way: by dynamically ending the active part of it. This reduces the amount of energy wasted on idle listening, in which nodes wait for potentially incoming messages, while still maintaining a reasonable throughput.We discuss the design of T-MAC, and provide a head-to-head comparison with classic CSMA (no duty cycle) and S-MAC (fixed duty cycle) through extensive simulations. Under homogeneous load, T-MAC and S-MAC achieve similar reductions in energy consumption (up to 98%) compared to CSMA. In a sample scenario with variable load, however, T-MAC outperforms S-MAC by a factor of 5. Preliminary energy-consumption measurements provide insight into the internal workings of the T-MAC protocol.

...read more

2,799 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-3664(02)00248-7
Shad Roundy1, Paul K. Wright1, Jan M. Rabaey1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Advances in low power VLSI design, along with the potentially low duty cycle of wireless sensor nodes open up the possibility of powering small wireless computing devices from scavenged ambient power. A broad review of potential power scavenging technologies and conventional energy sources is first presented. Low-level vibrations occurring in common household and office environments as a potential power source are studied in depth. The goal of this paper is not to suggest that the conversion of vibrations is the best or most versatile method to scavenge ambient power, but to study its potential as a viable power source for applications where vibrations are present. Different conversion mechanisms are investigated and evaluated leading to specific optimized designs for both capacitive MicroElectroMechancial Systems (MEMS) and piezoelectric converters. Simulations show that the potential power density from piezoelectric conversion is significantly higher. Experiments using an off-the-shelf PZT piezoelectric bimorph verify the accuracy of the models for piezoelectric converters. A power density of 70 @mW/cm^3 has been demonstrated with the PZT bimorph. Simulations show that an optimized design would be capable of 250 @mW/cm^3 from a vibration source with an acceleration amplitude of 2.5 m/s^2 at 120 Hz.

...read more

Topics: Power module (62%), Energy source (57%), Bimorph (56%) ...read more

2,536 Citations


Open accessProceedings ArticleDOI: 10.1109/PESC.1976.7072895
R.D. Middlebrook1, Slobodan Cuk1Institutions (1)
08 Jun 1976-
Abstract: A method for modelling switching-converter power stages is developed, whose starting point is the unified state-space representation of the switched networks and whose end result is either a complete state-space description or its equivalent small-signal low<-f requency linear circuit model. A new canonical circuit model is proposed, whose fixed topology contains all the essential inputr-output and control properties of any dc-todc switching converter, regardless of its detailed configuration, and by which different converters can be characterized in the form of a table conveniently stored in a computer data bank to provide a useful tool for computer aided design and optimization. The new canonical circuit model predicts that, in general;switching action introduces both zeros and poles into the duty ratio to output transfer function in addition to those from the effective filter network.

...read more

Topics: Equivalent circuit (58%), Linear circuit (57%), Duty cycle (53%) ...read more

1,900 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00207217708900678
R.D. Middlebrook1, Slobodan Cuk1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A method for modelling switching-converter power stages is developed, whose starting-point is the unified state-space representation of the switched notworks and whose end result is either a complete state-space description or its equivalent small-signal low-frequency linear circuit model. A new canonical circuit model is proposed, whose fixed topology contains all the essential input-output and control properties of any d.c.-to-d.c. switching converter, regardless of its detailed configuration, and by which different converters can be characterized in the form of a table conveniently stored in a computer data bank to provide a useful tool for computer-aided design and optimization. The new canonical circuit model predicts that, in general, switching action introduces both zeros and poles into the duty ratio to output transfer function in addition to those from the effective filter network.

...read more

Topics: Linear circuit (57%), Duty cycle (53%), Filter (video) (52%) ...read more

1,809 Citations


Patent
19 Jun 1996-
Abstract: In an electrosurgical generator for generating radio frequency power, the generator includes a radio frequency output stage having two or more output connections, and a power supply coupled to the output stage for supplying power to the output stage. A controller is operable to cause the generator to supply a blended output signal alternating constantly between a first output signal across the output connections in which the radio frequency output voltage developed across the output connections is limited to at least a first predetermined threshold value for cutting or vaporisation of tissue, and a second output signal across the output connections in which the radio frequency output voltage developed across the output connections is limited to a second threshold value for coagulation. There is also provided adjustment means, operable by a user of the electrosurgical generator, for changing between various preset settings for the blended signal, the preset settings each having a predetermined duty cycle of the blended signal that is limited to the first threshold value for cutting or vaporisation, and a predetermined duty cycle of the blended signal that is limited to the second threshold value for coagulation.

...read more

Topics: Duty cycle (54%), ELECTROSURGICAL DEVICE (52%), Signal (51%) ...read more

1,486 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202221
2021848
20201,453
20191,718
20181,702
20171,507

Top Attributes

Show by:

Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Marian K. Kazimierczuk

29 papers, 958 citations

David William Boerstler

22 papers, 160 citations

Ebrahim Babaei

22 papers, 273 citations

Eskinder Hailu

20 papers, 132 citations

Bhim Singh

20 papers, 274 citations

Network Information
Related Topics (5)
Voltage

296.3K papers, 1.7M citations

90% related
Pulse-width modulation

64.3K papers, 657K citations

88% related
Modulation

56K papers, 578.8K citations

88% related
Capacitor

166.6K papers, 1.4M citations

88% related
Harmonics

40.2K papers, 529.7K citations

86% related