Topic

# Earthquake engineering

About: Earthquake engineering is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6221 publications have been published within this topic receiving 144480 citations. The topic is also known as: Earthquake resistant.

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01 Jan 1995

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system, which is composed of a mass-spring-damper system and a non-viscous Damping Free Vibration (NFV) system.

Abstract: I. SINGLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS. 1. Equations of Motion, Problem Statement, and Solution Methods. Simple Structures. Single-Degree-of-Freedom System. Force-Displacement Relation. Damping Force. Equation of Motion: External Force. Mass-Spring-Damper System. Equation of Motion: Earthquake Excitation. Problem Statement and Element Forces. Combining Static and Dynamic Responses. Methods of Solution of the Differential Equation. Study of SDF Systems: Organization. Appendix 1: Stiffness Coefficients for a Flexural Element. 2. Free Vibration. Undamped Free Vibration. Viscously Damped Free Vibration. Energy in Free Vibration. Coulomb-Damped Free Vibration. 3. Response to Harmonic and Periodic Excitations. Viscously Damped Systems: Basic Results. Harmonic Vibration of Undamped Systems. Harmonic Vibration with Viscous Damping. Viscously Damped Systems: Applications. Response to Vibration Generator. Natural Frequency and Damping from Harmonic Tests. Force Transmission and Vibration Isolation. Response to Ground Motion and Vibration Isolation. Vibration-Measuring Instruments. Energy Dissipated in Viscous Damping. Equivalent Viscous Damping. Systems with Nonviscous Damping. Harmonic Vibration with Rate-Independent Damping. Harmonic Vibration with Coulomb Friction. Response to Periodic Excitation. Fourier Series Representation. Response to Periodic Force. Appendix 3: Four-Way Logarithmic Graph Paper. 4. Response to Arbitrary, Step, and Pulse Excitations.Response to Arbitrarily Time-Varying Forces. Response to Unit Impulse. Response to Arbitrary Force. Response to Step and Ramp Forces. Step Force. Ramp or Linearly Increasing Force. Step Force with Finite Rise Time. Response to Pulse Excitations. Solution Methods. Rectangular Pulse Force. Half-Cycle Sine Pulse Force. Symmetrical Triangular Pulse Force. Effects of Pulse Shape and Approximate Analysis for Short Pulses. Effects of Viscous Damping. Response to Ground Motion. 5. Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Response. Time-Stepping Methods. Methods Based on Interpolation of Excitation. Central Difference Method. Newmark's Method. Stability and Computational Error. Analysis of Nonlinear Response: Central Difference Method. Analysis of Nonlinear Response: Newmark's Method. 6. Earthquake Response of Linear Systems. Earthquake Excitation. Equation of Motion. Response Quantities. Response History. Response Spectrum Concept. Deformation, Pseudo-Velocity, and Pseudo-Acceleration Response Spectra. Peak Structural Response from the Response Spectrum. Response Spectrum Characteristics. Elastic Design Spectrum. Comparison of Design ad Response Spectra. Distinction between Design and Response Spectra. Velocity and Acceleration Response Spectra. Appendix 6: El Centro, 1940 Ground Motion. 7. Earthquake Response of Inelastic Systems. Force-Deformation Relations. Normalized Yield Strength, Yield Strength Reduction Factor, and Ductility Factor. Equation of Motion and Controlling Parameters. Effects of Yielding. Response Spectrum for Yield Deformation and Yield Strength. Yield Strength and Deformation from the Response Spectrum. Yield Strength-Ductility Relation. Relative Effects of Yielding and Damping. Dissipated Energy. Energy Dissipation Devices. Inelastic Design Spectrum. Applications of the Design Spectrum. Comparison of Design and Response Spectra. 8. Generalized Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems. Generalized SDF Systems. Rigid-Body Assemblages. Systems with Distributed Mass and Elasticity. Lumped-Mass System: Shear Building. Natural Vibration Frequency by Rayleigh's Method. Selection of Shape Function. Appendix 8: Inertia Forces for Rigid Bodies. II. MULTI-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM SYSTEMS. 9. Equations of Motion, Problem Statement, and Solution Methods. Simple System: Two-Story Shear Building. General Approach for Linear Systems. Static Condensation. Planar or Symmetric-Plan Systems: Ground Motion. Unsymmetric-Plan Building: Ground Motion. Symmetric-Plan Buildings: Torsional Excitation. Multiple Support Excitation. Inelastic Systems. Problem Statement. Element Forces. Methods for Solving the Equations of Motion: Overview. 10. Free Vibration. Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes. Systems without Damping. Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes. Modal and Spectral Matrices. Orthogonality of Modes. Interpretation of Modal Orthogonality. Normalization of Modes. Modal Expansion of Displacements. Free Vibration Response. Solution of Free Vibration Equations: Undamped Systems. Free Vibration of Systems with Damping. Solution of Free Vibration Equations: Classically Damped Systems. Computation of Vibration Properties. Solution Methods for the Eigenvalue Problem. Rayleigh's Quotient. Inverse Vector Iteration Method. Vector Iteration with Shifts: Preferred Procedure. Transformation of kA A = ...w2mA A to the Standard Form. 11. Damping in Structures.Experimental Data and Recommended Modal Damping Ratios. Vibration Properties of Millikan Library Building. Estimating Modal Damping Ratios. Construction of Damping Matrix. Damping Matrix. Classical Damping Matrix. Nonclassical Damping Matrix. 12. Dynamic Analysis and Response of Linear Systems.Two-Degree-of-Freedom Systems. Analysis of Two-DOF Systems without Damping. Vibration Absorber or Tuned Mass Damper. Modal Analysis. Modal Equations for Undamped Systems. Modal Equations for Damped Systems. Displacement Response. Element Forces. Modal Analysis: Summary. Modal Response Contributions. Modal Expansion of Excitation Vector p (t) = s p(T). Modal Analysis for p (t) = s p(T). Modal Contribution Factors. Modal Responses and Required Number of Modes. Special Analysis Procedures. Static Correction Method. Mode Acceleration Superposition Method. Analysis of Nonclassically Damped Systems. 13. Earthquake Analysis of Linear Systems.Response History Analysis. Modal Analysis. Multistory Buildings with Symmetric Plan. Multistory Buildings with Unsymmetric Plan. Torsional Response of Symmetric-Plan Buildings. Response Analysis for Multiple Support Excitation. Structural Idealization and Earthquake Response. Response Spectrum Analysis. Peak Response from Earthquake Response Spectrum. Multistory Buildings with Symmetric Plan. Multistory Buildings with Unsymmetric Plan. 14. Reduction of Degrees of Freedom. Kinematic Constraints. Mass Lumping in Selected DOFs. Rayleigh-Ritz Method. Selection of Ritz Vectors. Dynamic Analysis Using Ritz Vectors. 15. Numerical Evaluation of Dynamic Response. Time-Stepping Methods. Analysis of Linear Systems with Nonclassical Damping. Analysis of Nonlinear Systems. 16. Systems with Distributed Mass and Elasticity. Equation of Undamped Motion: Applied Forces. Equation of Undamped Motion: Support Excitation. Natural Vibration Frequencies and Modes. Modal Orthogonality. Modal Analysis of Forced Dynamic Response. Earthquake Response History Analysis. Earthquake Response Spectrum Analysis. Difficulty in Analyzing Practical Systems. 17. Introduction to the Finite Element Method.Rayleigh-Ritz Method. Formulation Using Conservation of Energy. Formulation Using Virtual Work. Disadvantages of Rayleigh-Ritz Method. Finite Element Method. Finite Element Approximation. Analysis Procedure. Element Degrees of Freedom and Interpolation Function. Element Stiffness Matrix. Element Mass Matrix. Element (Applied) Force Vector. Comparison of Finite Element and Exact Solutions. Dynamic Analysis of Structural Continua. III. EARTHQUAKE RESPONSE AND DESIGN OF MULTISTORY BUILDINGS. 18. Earthquake Response of Linearly Elastic Buildings. Systems Analyzed, Design Spectrum, and Response Quantities. Influence of T 1 and r on Response. Modal Contribution Factors. Influence of T 1 on Higher-Mode Response. Influence of r on Higher-Mode Response. Heightwise Variation of Higher-Mode Response. How Many Modes to Include. 19. Earthquake Response of Inelastic Buildings. Allowable Ductility and Ductility Demand. Buildings with "Weak" or "Soft" First Story. Buildings Designed for Code Force Distribution. Limited Scope. Appendix 19: Properties of Multistory Buildings. 20. Earthquake Dynamics of Base-Isolated Buildings. Isolation Systems. Base-Isolated One-Story Buildings. Effectiveness of Base Isolation. Base-Isolated Multistory Buildings. Applications of Base Isolation. 21. Structural Dynamics in Building Codes. Building Codes and Structural Dynamics. International Building Code (United States), 2000. National Building Code of Canada, 1995. Mexico Federal District Code, 1993. Eurocode 8. Structural Dynamics in Building Codes. Evaluation of Building Codes. Base Shear. Story Shears and Equivalent Static Forces. Overturning Moments. Concluding Remarks. Appendix A: Frequency Domain Method of Response Analysis.Appendix B: Notation.Appendix C: Answers to Selected Problems.Index.

4,812 citations

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07 Jan 1996

TL;DR: In this paper, the Probleme dynamique Reference Record was created on 2004-09-07, modified on 2016-08-08 and was used as a reference record.

Abstract: Keywords: Tremblement de terre ; Danger naturel ; Propagation des ondes ; Probleme dynamique Reference Record created on 2004-09-07, modified on 2016-08-08

3,585 citations

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TL;DR: Incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) is a parametric analysis method that has recently emerged in several different forms to estimate more thoroughly structural performance under seismic loads as mentioned in this paper, which involves subjecting a structural model to one or more ground motion record(s), each scaled to multiple levels of intensity, thus producing one (or more) curve(s) of response parameterized versus intensity level.

Abstract: Incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) is a parametric analysis method that has recently emerged in several different forms to estimate more thoroughly structural performance under seismic loads. It involves subjecting a structural model to one (or more) ground motion record(s), each scaled to multiple levels of intensity, thus producing one (or more) curve(s) of response parameterized versus intensity level. To establish a common frame of reference, the fundamental concepts are analysed, a unified terminology is proposed, suitable algorithms are presented, and properties of the IDA curve are looked into for both single-degree-of-freedom and multi-degree-of-freedom structures. In addition, summarization techniques for multi-record IDA studies and the association of the IDA study with the conventional static pushover analysis and the yield reduction R-factor are discussed. Finally, in the framework of performance-based earthquake engineering, the assessment of demand and capacity is viewed through the lens of an IDA study. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

3,334 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an improved pushover analysis procedure based on structural dynamics theory, which retains the conceptual simplicity and computational attractiveness of current procedures with invariant force distribution, is presented. But, the MPA procedure is not accurate enough for practical application in building evaluation and design.

Abstract: Developed herein is an improved pushover analysis procedure based on structural dynamics theory, which retains the conceptual simplicity and computational attractiveness of current procedures with invariant force distribution. In this modal pushover analysis (MPA), the seismic demand due to individual terms in the modal expansion of the effective earthquake forces is determined by a pushover analysis using the inertia force distribution for each mode. Combining these ‘modal’ demands due to the first two or three terms of the expansion provides an estimate of the total seismic demand on inelastic systems. When applied to elastic systems, the MPA procedure is shown to be equivalent to standard response spectrum analysis (RSA). When the peak inelastic response of a 9-storey steel building determined by the approximate MPA procedure is compared with rigorous non-linear response history analysis, it is demonstrated that MPA estimates the response of buildings responding well into the inelastic range to a similar degree of accuracy as RSA in estimating peak response of elastic systems. Thus, the MPA procedure is accurate enough for practical application in building evaluation and design. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1,130 citations