About: Economic integration is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21606 publications have been published within this topic receiving 416103 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: The World Trade Organization (WTO) was established by agreement of more than 120 economies, with almost all the rest eager to join as rapidly as possible as mentioned in this paper, and the agreement included a codification of basic principles governing trade in goods and services.
Abstract: WHEN T H E BROOKINGS Panel on Economic Activity began in 1970, the world economy roughly accorded with the idea of three distinct economic systems: a capitalist first world, a socialist second world, and a developing third world which aimed for a middle way between the first two. The third world was characterized not only by its low levels of per capita GDP, but also by a distinctive economic system that assigned the state sector the predominant role in industrialization, although not the monopoly on industrial ownership as in the socialist economies. The years between 1970 and 1995, and especially the last decade, have witnessed the most remarkable institutional harmonization and economic integration among nations in world history. While economic integration was increasing throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the extent of integration has come sharply into focus only since the collapse of communism in 1989. In 1995 one dominant global economic system is emerging. The common set of institutions is exemplified by the new World Trade Organization (WTO), which was established by agreement of more than 120 economies, with almost all the rest eager to join as rapidly as possible. Part of the new trade agreement involves a codification of basic principles governing trade in goods and services. Similarly, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) now boasts nearly universal membership, with member countries pledged to basic principles of currency convertibility. Most programs of economic reform now underway in the developing world and in the post-communist world have as their strategic aim the
TL;DR: This article developed a Ricardian trade model that incorporates realistic geographic features into general equilibrium and delivered simple structural equations for bilateral trade with parameters relating to absolute advantage, comparative advantage, and geographic barriers.
Abstract: We develop a Ricardian trade model that incorporates realistic geographic features into general equilibrium It delivers simple structural equations for bilateral trade with parameters relating to absolute advantage, to comparative advantage (promoting trade), and to geographic barriers (resisting it) We estimate the parameters with data on bilateral trade in manufactures, prices, and geography from 19 OECD countries in 1990 We use the model to explore various issues such as the gains from trade, the role of trade in spreading the benefits of new technology, and the effects of tariff reduction
TL;DR: The authors developed a simple, general equilibrium model of non-comparative advantage trade and showed that trade and gains from trade will occur, even between countries with identical tastes, technology, and factor endowments.
Abstract: This paper develops a simple, general equilibrium model of noncomparative advantage trade. Trade is driven by economies of scale, which are internal to firms. Because of the scale economies, markets are imperfectly competitive. Nonetheless, one can show that trade, and gains from trade, will occur, even between countries with identical tastes, technology, and factor endowments.
•01 Jan 1999
TL;DR: In this article, the European Contribution Conclusion: Multi-level Problem-Solving in Europe References Index is presented, where the authors propose a solution without boundary control for solving multi-level problem solving in Europe.
Abstract: 1. Political Democracy in a Capitalist Economy 2. Negative and Positive Integration 3. Regulatory Competition and Re-Regulation 4. National Solutions without Boundary Control 5. The European Contribution Conclusion: Multi-level Problem-Solving in Europe References Index
TL;DR: This paper found little evidence that open trade policies are significantly associated with economic growth, in the sense of lower tariff and nontariff barriers to trade, and showed that the indicators of openness used by researchers are poor measures of trade barriers or are highly correlated with other sources of bad economic performance.
Abstract: Do countries with lower policy-induced barriers to international trade grow faster, once other relevant country characteristics are controlled for? There exists a large empirical literature providing an affirmative answer to this question. We argue that methodological problems with the empirical strategies employed in this literature leave the results open to diverse interpretations. In many cases, the indicators of openness used by researchers are poor measures of trade barriers or are highly correlated with other sources of bad economic performance. In other cases, the methods used to ascertain the link between trade policy and growth have serious shortcomings. Papers that we review include those by Dollar (1992), Ben-David (1993), Sachs and Warner (1995), Edwards (1998), and Frankel and Romer (1999). We find little evidence that open trade policies-in the sense of lower tariff and nontariff barriers to trade-are significantly associated with economic growth.
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