Topic

# Edge detection

About: Edge detection is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 25525 publications have been published within this topic receiving 486443 citations. The topic is also known as: edgel.

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TL;DR: There is a natural uncertainty principle between detection and localization performance, which are the two main goals, and with this principle a single operator shape is derived which is optimal at any scale.

Abstract: This paper describes a computational approach to edge detection. The success of the approach depends on the definition of a comprehensive set of goals for the computation of edge points. These goals must be precise enough to delimit the desired behavior of the detector while making minimal assumptions about the form of the solution. We define detection and localization criteria for a class of edges, and present mathematical forms for these criteria as functionals on the operator impulse response. A third criterion is then added to ensure that the detector has only one response to a single edge. We use the criteria in numerical optimization to derive detectors for several common image features, including step edges. On specializing the analysis to step edges, we find that there is a natural uncertainty principle between detection and localization performance, which are the two main goals. With this principle we derive a single operator shape which is optimal at any scale. The optimal detector has a simple approximate implementation in which edges are marked at maxima in gradient magnitude of a Gaussian-smoothed image. We extend this simple detector using operators of several widths to cope with different signal-to-noise ratios in the image. We present a general method, called feature synthesis, for the fine-to-coarse integration of information from operators at different scales. Finally we show that step edge detector performance improves considerably as the operator point spread function is extended along the edge.

28,073 citations

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TL;DR: A new definition of scale-space is suggested, and a class of algorithms used to realize a diffusion process is introduced, chosen to vary spatially in such a way as to encourage intra Region smoothing rather than interregion smoothing.

Abstract: A new definition of scale-space is suggested, and a class of algorithms used to realize a diffusion process is introduced. The diffusion coefficient is chosen to vary spatially in such a way as to encourage intraregion smoothing rather than interregion smoothing. It is shown that the 'no new maxima should be generated at coarse scales' property of conventional scale space is preserved. As the region boundaries in the approach remain sharp, a high-quality edge detector which successfully exploits global information is obtained. Experimental results are shown on a number of images. Parallel hardware implementations are made feasible because the algorithm involves elementary, local operations replicated over the image. >

12,560 citations

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TL;DR: The theory of edge detection explains several basic psychophysical findings, and the operation of forming oriented zero-crossing segments from the output of centre-surround ∇2G filters acting on the image forms the basis for a physiological model of simple cells.

Abstract: A theory of edge detection is presented. The analysis proceeds in two parts. (1) Intensity changes, which occur in a natural image over a wide range of scales, are detected separately at different scales. An appropriate filter for this purpose at a given scale is found to be the second derivative of a Gaussian, and it is shown that, provided some simple conditions are satisfied, these primary filters need not be orientation-dependent. Thus, intensity changes at a given scale are best detected by finding the zero values of delta 2G(x,y)*I(x,y) for image I, where G(x,y) is a two-dimensional Gaussian distribution and delta 2 is the Laplacian. The intensity changes thus discovered in each of the channels are then represented by oriented primitives called zero-crossing segments, and evidence is given that this representation is complete. (2) Intensity changes in images arise from surface discontinuities or from reflectance or illumination boundaries, and these all have the property that they are spatially. Because of this, the zero-crossing segments from the different channels are not independent, and rules are deduced for combining them into a description of the image. This description is called the raw primal sketch. The theory explains several basic psychophysical findings, and the operation of forming oriented zero-crossing segments from the output of centre-surround delta 2G filters acting on the image forms the basis for a physiological model of simple cells (see Marr & Ullman 1979).

6,893 citations

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TL;DR: This paper investigates two fundamental problems in computer vision: contour detection and image segmentation and presents state-of-the-art algorithms for both of these tasks.

Abstract: This paper investigates two fundamental problems in computer vision: contour detection and image segmentation. We present state-of-the-art algorithms for both of these tasks. Our contour detector combines multiple local cues into a globalization framework based on spectral clustering. Our segmentation algorithm consists of generic machinery for transforming the output of any contour detector into a hierarchical region tree. In this manner, we reduce the problem of image segmentation to that of contour detection. Extensive experimental evaluation demonstrates that both our contour detection and segmentation methods significantly outperform competing algorithms. The automatically generated hierarchical segmentations can be interactively refined by user-specified annotations. Computation at multiple image resolutions provides a means of coupling our system to recognition applications.

5,068 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a geodesic approach based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image is presented. But this approach is not suitable for 3D object segmentation.

Abstract: A novel scheme for the detection of object boundaries is presented. The technique is based on active contours evolving in time according to intrinsic geometric measures of the image. The evolving contours naturally split and merge, allowing the simultaneous detection of several objects and both interior and exterior boundaries. The proposed approach is based on the relation between active contours and the computation of geodesics or minimal distance curves. The minimal distance curve lays in a Riemannian space whose metric is defined by the image content. This geodesic approach for object segmentation allows to connect classical “snakes” based on energy minimization and geometric active contours based on the theory of curve evolution. Previous models of geometric active contours are improved, allowing stable boundary detection when their gradients suffer from large variations, including gaps. Formal results concerning existence, uniqueness, stability, and correctness of the evolution are presented as well. The scheme was implemented using an efficient algorithm for curve evolution. Experimental results of applying the scheme to real images including objects with holes and medical data imagery demonstrate its power. The results may be extended to 3D object segmentation as well.

4,967 citations