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Effluent

About: Effluent is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 32668 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 533991 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
M.A. Barakat1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Innovative processes for treating industrial wastewater containing heavy metals often involve technologies for reduction of toxicity in order to meet technology-based treatment standards. This article reviews the recent developments and technical applicability of various treatments for the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. A particular focus is given to innovative physico-chemical removal processes such as; adsorption on new adsorbents, membrane filtration, electrodialysis, and photocatalysis. Their advantages and limitations in application are evaluated. The main operating conditions such as pH and treatment performance are presented. Published studies of 94 cited references (1999–2008) are reviewed. It is evident from survey that new adsorbents and membrane filtration are the most frequently studied and widely applied for the treatment of metal-contaminated wastewater. However, in the near future, the most promising methods to treat such complex systems will be the photocatalytic ones which consume cheap photons from the UV-near visible region. They induce both degradation of organic pollutants and recovery of metals in one-pot systems. On the other hand, from the conventional processes, lime precipitation has been found as one of the most effective means to treat inorganic effluent with a metal concentration of >1000 mg/L. It is important to note that the overall treatment cost of metal-contaminated water varies, depending on the process employed and the local conditions. In general, the technical applicability, plant simplicity and cost-effectiveness are the key factors in selecting the most suitable treatment for inorganic effluent

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1,956 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
C. Desbrow1, Edwin J. Routledge1, G. C. Brighty1, John P. Sumpter1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A fractionation system, combined with an in vitro assay for detecting estrogenic activity, was developed in order to isolate and identify the major estrogenic chemicals present in seven sewage-treatment works (STW) effluents, receiving primarily domestic effluent, discharging into British rivers. Three sterols were isolated from estrogenic fractions of sewage extracts; these were the natural hormones 17β-estradiol and estrone and the synthetic hormone 17α-ethynylestradiol. 17β-Estradiol and estrone were present in all the effluents at measured concentra tions ranging from 1 ng/L to almost 50 and 80 ng/L, respectively. The concentration of 17α-ethynylestradiol was generally below the limit of detection but was positively identified in three of the effluent samples at concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 7.0 ng/L. These data suggest that natural and synthetic hormones may be responsible for the observed induction of vitellogenin synthesis in male fish placed downstream of effluent discharges from STWs that re...

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1,641 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits.

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Abstract: Produced water is the largest waste stream generated in oil and gas industries. It is a mixture of different organic and inorganic compounds. Due to the increasing volume of waste all over the world in the current decade, the outcome and effect of discharging produced water on the environment has lately become a significant issue of environmental concern. Produced water is conventionally treated through different physical, chemical, and biological methods. In offshore platforms because of space constraints, compact physical and chemical systems are used. However, current technologies cannot remove small-suspended oil particles and dissolved elements. Besides, many chemical treatments, whose initial and/or running cost are high and produce hazardous sludge. In onshore facilities, biological pretreatment of oily wastewater can be a cost-effective and environmental friendly method. As high salt concentration and variations of influent characteristics have direct influence on the turbidity of the effluent, it is appropriate to incorporate a physical treatment, e.g., membrane to refine the final effluent. For these reasons, major research efforts in the future could focus on the optimization of current technologies and use of combined physico-chemical and/or biological treatment of produced water in order to comply with reuse and discharge limits.

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1,580 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article reviews the technical applicability of various physico–chemical treatments for the removal of heavy metals such as Cd(II), Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from contaminated wastewater. A particular focus is given to chemical precipitation, coagulation–flocculation, flotation, ion exchange and membrane filtration. Their advantages and limitations in application are evaluated. Their operating conditions such as pH, dose required, initial metal concentration and treatment performance are presented. About 124 published studies (1980–2006) are reviewed. It is evident from the survey that ion exchange and membrane filtration are the most frequently studied and widely applied for the treatment of metal-contaminated wastewater. Ion exchange has achieved a complete removal of Cd(II), Cr(III), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with an initial concentration of 100 mg/L, respectively. The results are comparable to that of reverse osmosis (99% of Cd(II) rejection with an initial concentration of 200 mg/L). Lime precipitation has been found as one of the most effective means to treat inorganic effluent with a metal concentration of higher than 1000 mg/L. It is important to note that the overall treatment cost of metal-contaminated water varies, depending on the process employed and the local conditions. In general, the technical applicability, plant simplicity and cost-effectiveness are the key factors in selecting the most suitable treatment for inorganic effluent.

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1,510 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Paola Verlicchi1, M. Al Aukidy1, E. Zambello1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesic/ anti- inflammatories.

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Abstract: This review focuses on 118 pharmaceuticals, belonging to seventeen different therapeutic classes, detected in raw urban wastewater and effluent from an activated sludge system, a usual treatment adopted for urban wastewaters worldwide prior to final discharge into surface water bodies. Data pertaining to 244 conventional activated sludge systems and 20 membrane biological reactors are analysed and the observed ranges of variability of each selected compound in their influent and effluent reported, with particular reference to the substances detected most frequently and in higher concentrations. A snapshot of the ability of these systems to remove such compounds is provided by comparing their global removal efficiencies for each substance. Where possible, the study then evaluates the average daily mass load of the majority of detected pharmaceuticals exiting the secondary treatment step. The final part of the review provides an assessment of the environmental risk posed by their presence in the secondary effluent by means of the risk quotient that is the ratio between the average pharmaceutical concentration measured in the secondary effluent and the predicted no-effect concentration. Finally, mass load rankings of the compounds under review are compared with those based on their risk level. This analysis shows that the highest amounts discharged through secondary effluent pertain to one antihypertensive, and several beta-blockers and analgesics/anti-inflammatories, while the highest risk is posed by antibiotics and several psychiatric drugs and analgesics/anti-inflammatories. These results are reported with a view to aiding scientists and administrators in planning measures aiming to reduce the impact of treated urban wastewater discharge into surface water bodies.

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1,427 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202263
20211,137
20201,337
20191,528
20181,582
20171,704

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Derin Orhon

28 papers, 654 citations

Amir Hossein Mahvi

16 papers, 163 citations

Makram T. Suidan

12 papers, 449 citations

Saravanamuthu Vigneswaran

12 papers, 1K citations

Míriam Cristina Santos Amaral

12 papers, 193 citations