About: Elastomer is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 27836 publications have been published within this topic receiving 367764 citations. The topic is also known as: rubber.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a review of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites is presented, where the polymer chains are sandwiched in between silicate layers and exfoliated layers are more or less uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix.
Abstract: This review aims at reporting on very recent developments in syntheses, properties and (future) applications of polymer-layered silicate nanocomposites. This new type of materials, based on smectite clays usually rendered hydrophobic through ionic exchange of the sodium interlayer cation with an onium cation, may be prepared via various synthetic routes comprising exfoliation adsorption, in situ intercalative polymerization and melt intercalation. The whole range of polymer matrices is covered, i.e. thermoplastics, thermosets and elastomers. Two types of structure may be obtained, namely intercalated nanocomposites where the polymer chains are sandwiched in between silicate layers and exfoliated nanocomposites where the separated, individual silicate layers are more or less uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix. This new family of materials exhibits enhanced properties at very low filler level, usually inferior to 5 wt.%, such as increased Young’s modulus and storage modulus, increase in thermal stability and gas barrier properties and good flame retardancy.
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a survey of the properties of polymers and their application in the field of chemical engineering, including the following: Coextrusion, Injection Molding, Flexible Packaging, Fibers, Polymer-Clay, and Plasticizers.
Abstract: VOLUME 1. Acetylenic Polymers, Substituted. Acrylamide Polymers. Acrylic (and Methacrylic) Acid Polymers. Acrylic Ester Polymers. Acrylonitrile and Acrylonitrile Polymers. Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene Polymers. Additives. Adhesion. Adhesive Compounds. Aging, Physical. Alkyd Resins. Am,ino Resins and Plastics. Antifoaming Agents. Atomic Force Microscopy. Biotechnology Applications. Bloack Copolymers. Bloack Copolymers, Ternary Triblock. Blow Molding. Chitin and Chitosan. Chromatography, Affinity. Chromatography, HPLC. Chromatography, Size Exclusion. Coating Methods, Survey. Coatings. VOLUME 2 Coextrusion. Colorants. Coloring Processes. Composites, Fabrication. Conformation and Configuration. Critical Phase Polymerizations. Cyclohexanedimethanol Polyesters. Dendronized Polymers. Dental Applications. Diacethylene and Triacethylene Polymers. Elasticity, Rubber-Like. Electronic Packaging. Electrooptical Applications. Engineering, Thermoplastics, Overview. Enzymatic Polymerization. Ethylene Polymers, Chlorosulfonated. Ethylene Polymers, HDPE. Ethylene Polymers, LDPE. Ehtylene Polymers, LLDPE. Ethylene-Acrylic Elastomers. Ethylene-Norbornene Copolymers. Extrusion. Films, Orientation. Fluorocarbon Elastomers. Fractography. Fracture. Glass Transition. Hardness. Hydrogels. Hyperbranched Polymers. VOLUME 3 Injection Molding. Inorganic Polymers. Laser Light Scattering. Light-Emiting Diodes. Lignin. Liquid Crystalline Polymers, Main-Chain. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets. Mass Spectrometry. Membrane Technology. Methacrylic Ester Polymers. Micromechanical Properties. Modeling of Polymer Processing and Properties. Nanocomposites, Polymer-Clay. Packaging, Flexible. Perfluorinated Polymers, Perfluorinated Ethylene-Propylene Copolymers. Perfluorinated Polymers Polytetrafluoroethylene. Perfluorinated Polymers Tetrafluoroethylene-Ethylene Copolymers. Perfluorinated Polymers, Tetrafluoroethylene-Perfluorinated Copolymers. Perfluorinated Polymers. Tetrafluoroethylene-Perfluorovinyl Ether Copolymers. Phosgene. Phosphorus-Containing Polymers and Oligomers. Piezoelectric Polymers. Plasticizers. Poly(3-Hydroxyalkanoates). Poly(Trimethylene Terephthalate). Polyamides, Atomatic. Polyamides, Fibers. Polyamides, Plastics. Polycyanoacrylates. Polyesters, Fibers. Polyketones. Polynucleotides. Polysulfides. VOLUME 4 Polysulfones. Polyurethanes. Pressure-Sensitive Adhesive. Reinforcement. Release Agents. Shape-Memory Polymers. Single-Site Catalysis. Stabilization. Styrene-Butadiene Rubber (SBR). Styrene Polymers. Sulfur-Containing Polymers. Surface Properties. Syndiotactic Polystyrene. Vinyl Fluoride Polymers (PVF). Vinylidene Chloride Polymers. Vinylidene Fluoride Polymers. Viscoelasticity. Weathering.
TL;DR: It is shown that prestraining the film further improves the performance of electrical actuators made from films of dielectric elastomers coated on both sides with compliant electrode material.
Abstract: Electrical actuators were made from films of dielectric elastomers (such as silicones) coated on both sides with compliant electrode material. When voltage was applied, the resulting electrostatic forces compressed the film in thickness and expanded it in area, producing strains up to 30 to 40%. It is now shown that prestraining the film further improves the performance of these devices. Actuated strains up to 117% were demonstrated with silicone elastomers, and up to 215% with acrylic elastomers using biaxially and uniaxially prestrained films. The strain, pressure, and response time of silicone exceeded those of natural muscle; specific energy densities greatly exceeded those of other field-actuated materials. Because the actuation mechanism is faster than in other high-strain electroactive polymers, this technology may be suitable for diverse applications.
TL;DR: An overview of polymer-clay hybrid nanocomposites is provided with emphasis placed on the use of alkylammonium exchanged smectite clays as the reinforcement phase in selected polymer matrices as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: An overview of polymer–clay hybrid nanocomposites is provided with emphasis placed on the use of alkylammonium exchanged smectite clays as the reinforcement phase in selected polymer matrices. A few weight percent loading of organoclay in nylon 6 boosts the heat distortion temperature by 80°C, making possible structural applications under conditions where the pristine polymer would normally fail. A similar loading of clay nanolayers in elastomeric epoxy and polyurethane matrices dramatically improves both the toughness and the tensile properties of these thermoset systems. Glassy epoxy nanocomposites exhibit substantial improvement in yield strength and modulus under compressive stress–strain conditions. The latest development in polypropylene hybrids have yielded nanocomposites with improved storage moduli. Polyimide hybrids in thin-film form display a 10-fold decrease in permeability toward water vapor at 2 wt.% clay loading. In situ and melt intercalation processing methods are effective in producing reinforced polystyrene hybrids. Nitrile rubber hybrids show improved storage moduli and reduced permeabilities even toward gases as small as hydrogen. Poly(e-caprolactone)–clay nanocomposites prepared by in situ polymerization of e-caprolactone in organoclay galleries show a substantial reduction in water adsorption. Polysiloxane nanocomposites produced from poly(dimethylsiloxane) and organoclay mixtures have improved in tensile properties, thermal stability and resistance to swelling solvents. Organoclay-poly(l-lactide) composite film was obtained by solvent casting technique. Clay nanolayers dispersed in liquid crystals act as structure directors and form hybrids composites that can be switched from being highly opaque to highly transparent by applying an electric field of short duration.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the appearance of complex, ordered structures induced by the buckling of thin metal films owing to thermal contraction of an underlying substrate, and account qualitatively for the size and form of the patterned features in terms of the nonuniform stresses developed in the film near steps on the polymer substrate.
Abstract: Spontaneous generation of complex order in apparently simple systems is both arresting and potentially useful1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11. Here we describe the appearance of complex, ordered structures induced by the buckling of thin metal films owing to thermal contraction of an underlying substrate. We deposit the films from the vapour phase on a thermally expanded polymer (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS). Subsequent cooling of the polymer creates compressive stress in the metal film that is relieved by buckling with a uniform wavelength of 20–50 micrometres. The waves can be controlled and orientated by relief structures in the surface of the polymer, which can set up intricate, ordered patterns over large areas. We can account qualitatively for the size and form of the patterned features in terms of the non-uniform stresses developed in the film near steps on the polymer substrate. This patterning process may find applications in optical devices such as diffraction gratings and optical sensors, and as the basis for methods of strain analysis in materials.