Topic

# Electric charge

About: Electric charge is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13135 publications have been published within this topic receiving 212998 citations. The topic is also known as: electrical charge & charge.

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AT&T Corporation

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the electromotive force due to thermal agitation in conductors is calculated by means of principles in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and the results obtained agree with results obtained experimentally.

Abstract: The electromotive force due to thermal agitation in conductors is calculated by means of principles in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The results obtained agree with results obtained experimentally.

2,581 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was pointed out that the usual principle of invariance under isotopic spin rotation is not consistant with the concept of localized fields, and the possibility of having invariance in local isotope spin rotations was explored.

Abstract: It is pointed out that the usual principle of invariance under isotopic spin rotation is not consistant with the concept of localized fields. The possibility is explored of having invariance under local isotopic spin rotations. This leads to formulating a principle of isotopic gauge invariance and the existence of a b field which has the same relation to the isotopic spin that the electromagnetic field has to the electric charge. The b field satisfies nonlinear differential equations. The quanta of the b field are particles with spin unity, isotopic spin unity, and electric charge $\ifmmode\pm\else\textpm\fi{}e$ or zero.

2,496 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the electrons are regarded as forming a perfect gas satisfying the Fermi statistics and occupying the region of phase space of lowest energy, with two opposite spins in each volume (2πh)3, and the remainder is assumed to be empty.

Abstract: For dealing with atoms involving many electrons the accurate quantum theory, involving a solution of the wave equation in many-dimensional space, is far too complicated to be practicable. One must therefore resort to approximate methods. The best of these is Hartree's method of the self-consistent field. Even this, however, is hardly practicable when one has to deal with very many electrons, so that one then requires a still simpler and rougher method. Such a method is provided by Thomas' atomic model, in which the electrons are regarded as forming a perfect gas satisfying the Fermi statistics and occupying the region of phase space of lowest energy. This region of phase space is assumed to be saturated, with two electrons with opposite spins in each volume (2πh)3, and the remainder is assumed to be empty. Although this model hitherto has not been justified theoretically, it seems to be a plausible approximation for the interior of a heavy atom and one may expect it to give with some accuracy the distribution of electric charge there.

2,479 citations

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University of Mainz

^{1}, Spanish National Research Council^{2}, Hitachi^{3}, University of Regensburg^{4}, University of Nottingham^{5}TL;DR: In solid-state materials with strong relativistic spin-orbit coupling, charge currents generate transverse spin currents as discussed by the authors and the associated spin Hall and inverse spin Hall effects distinguish between charge and spin current where electron charge is a conserved quantity but its spin direction is not.

Abstract: In solid-state materials with strong relativistic spin-orbit coupling, charge currents generate transverse spin currents. The associated spin Hall and inverse spin Hall effects distinguish between charge and spin current where electron charge is a conserved quantity but its spin direction is not. This review provides a theoretical and experimental treatment of this subfield of spintronics, beginning with distinct microscopic mechanisms seen in ferromagnets and concluding with a discussion of optical-, transport-, and magnetization-dynamics-based experiments closely linked to the microscopic and phenomenological theories presented.

1,656 citations

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TL;DR: A review of magnetized-plasma transport theory can be found in this paper, with a focus on the application to axisymmetric tokamak-type confinement systems.

Abstract: The dissipation induced by coulomb-collisional scattering provides an irreducible minimum, and thus a useful standard for comparison, for transport processes in a hot, magnetically confined plasma. The kinetic description of this dissipation is provided by an equation of the Fokker-Planck form. As in the standard transport theory for a neutral gas, approximate solution of the Fokker-Planck equation permits the calculation of transport coefficients, which linearly relate the fluxes of particles, energy, and electric charge, to the density and temperature gradients, and to the electric field. The transport relations are useful in studying the confinement properties of present and future experimental devices for research in controlled thermonuclear fusion. The transport theory for a magnetized plasma (in which the Larmor radius is much smaller than gradient scale lengths describing the plasma fluid) departs from the theory for a neutral gas in several fundamental ways. Thus, transport coefficients for a magnetized plasma can be calculated even when the collisional mean free path is much longer than the gradient scale length (as would pertain in thermonuclear regimes). Such transport coefficients are generally nonlocal, being defined in terms of averages over surfaces with macroscopic dimensions. Furthermore, when the mean free path is long, the magnetized-plasma transport coefficients depend crucially upon the magnetic field geometry, the effects of which must be treated at the kinetic level of the Fokker-Planck equation. The results display several novel couplings between collisional dissipation and the electromagnetic field. The present review of magnetized-plasma transport theory is intended to be as widely accessible as possible. Thus the relevant features of magnetic confinement in closed (toroidal) systems, and of charged particles in spatially varying fields, are derived, at least in outline, from first principles. Although consideration is given to "classical" transport in which most field geometric effects are omitted, major emphasis is placed on the "neoclassical" theory which has been developed over the last decade. Neoclassical transport coefficients are specifically relevant to a magnetically confined plasma, rather than to just a magnetized plasma; their unusual features, such as nonlocality and geometry dependence, become particularly important in the high temperature regime of proposed thermonuclear reactors. The area of neoclassical theory which seems most complete---its application to axisymmetric tokamak-type confinement systems---is correspondingly stressed.

1,507 citations