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Electric discharge

About: Electric discharge is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 13085 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 123096 citation(s). The topic is also known as: discharge. more

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01 Oct 1991-
Abstract: 1. Introduction.- 1.1 What Is the Subject of Gas Discharge Physics.- 1.2 Typical Discharges in a Constant Electric Field.- 1.3 Classification of Discharges.- 1.4 Brief History of Electric Discharge Research.- 1.5 Organization of the Book. Bibliography.- 2. Drift, Energy and Diffusion of Charged Particles in Constant Fields.- 2.1 Drift of Electrons in a Weakly Ionized Gas.- 2.2 Conduction of Ionized Gas.- 2.3 Electron Energy.- 2.4 Diffusion of Electrons.- 2.5 Ions.- 2.6 Ambipolar Diffusion.- 2.7 Electric Current in Plasma in the Presence of Longitudinal Gradients of Charge Density.- 2.8 Hydrodynamic Description of Electrons.- 3. Interaction of Electrons in an Ionized Gas with Oscillating Electric Field and Electromagnetic Waves.- 3.1 The Motion of Electrons in Oscillating Fields.- 3.2 Electron Energy.- 3.3 Basic Equations of Electrodynamics of Continuous Media.- 3.4 High-Frequency Conductivity and Dielectric Permittivity of Plasma.- 3.5 Propagation of Electromagnetic, Waves in Plasmas.- 3.6 Total Reflection of Electromagnetic Waves from Plasma and Plasma Oscillations.- 4. Production and Decay of Charged Particles.- 4.1 Electron Impact Ionization in a Constant Field.- 4.2 Other Ionization Mechanisms.- 4.3 Bulk Recombination.- 4.4 Formation and Decay of Negative Ions.- 4.5 Diffusional Loss of Charges.- 4.6 Electron Emission from Solids.- 4.7 Multiplication of Charges in a Gas via Secondary Emission.- 5. Kinetic Equation for Electrons in a Weakly Ionized Gas Placed in an Electric Field.- 5.1 Description of Electron Processes in Terms of the Velocity Distribution Function.- 5.2 Formulation of the Kinetic Equation.- 5.3 Approximation for the Angular Dependence of the Distribution Function.- 5.4 Equation of the Electron Energy Spectrum.- 5.5 Validity Criteria for the Spectrum Equation.- 5.6 Comparison of Some Conclusions Implied by the Kinetic Equation with the Result of Elementary Theory.- 5.7 Stationary Spectrum of Electrons in a Field in the Case of only Elastic Losses.- 5.8 Numerical Results for Nitrogen and Air.- 5.9 Spatially Nonuniform Fields of Arbitrary Strength.- 6. Electric Probes.- 6.1 Introduction. Electric Circuit.- 6.2 Current-Voltage Characteristic of a Single Probe.- 6.3 Theoretical Foundations of Electronic Current Diagnostics of Rarefied Plasmas.- 6.4 Procedure for Measuring the Distribution Function.- 6.5 Ionic Current to a Probe in Rarefied Plasma.- 6.6 Vacuum Diode Current and Space-Charge Layer Close to a Charged Body.- 6.7 Double Probe.- 6.8 Probe in a High-Pressure Plasma.- 7. Breakdown of Gases in Fields of Various Frequency Ranges.- 7.1 Essential Characteristics of the Phenomenon.- 7.2 Breakdown and Triggering of Self-Sustained Discharge in a Constant Homogeneous Field at Moderately Large Product of Pressure and Discharge Gap Width.- 7.3 Breakdown in Microwave Fields and Interpretation of Experimental Data Using the Elementary Theory.- 7.4 Calculation of Ionization Frequencies and Breakdown Thresholds Using the Kinetic Equation.- 7.5 Optical Breakdown.- 7.6 Methods of Exciting an RF Field in a Discharge Volume.- 7.7 Breakdown in RF and Low-Frequency Ranges.- 8. Stable Glow Discharge.- 8.1 General Structure and Observable Features.- 8.2 Current-Voltage Characteristic of Discharge Between Electrodes.- 8.3 Dark Discharge and the Role Played by Space Charge in the Formation of the Cathode Layer.- 8.4 Cathode Layer.- 8.5 Transition Region Between the Cathode Layer and the Homogeneous Positive Column.- 8.6 Positive Column.- 8.7 Heating of the Gas and Its Effect on the Current-Voltage Characteristic.- 8.8 Electronegative Gas Plasma.- 8.9 Discharge in Fast Gas Flow.- 8.10 Anode Layer.- 9. Glow Discharge Instabilities and Their Consequences.- 9.1 Causes and Consequences of Instabilities.- 9.2 Quasisteady Parameters.- 9.3 Field and Electron Temperature Perturbations in the Case of Quasisteady-State Te.- 9.4 Thermal Instability.- 9.5 Attachment Instability.- 9.6 Some Other Frequently Encountered Destabilizing Mechanisms.- 9.7 Striations.- 9.8 Contraction of the Positive Column.- 10. Arc Discharge.- 10.1 Definition and Characteristic Features of Arc Discharge.- 10.2 Arc Types.- 10.3 Arc Initiation.- 10.4 Carbon Arc in Free Air.- 10.5 Hot Cathode Arc: Processes near the Cathode.- 10.6 Cathode Spots and Vacuum Arc.- 10.7 Anode Region.- 10.8 Low-Pressure Arc with Externally Heated Cathode.- 10.9 Positive Column of High-Pressure Arc (Experimental Data).- 10.10 Plasma Temperature and V - i Characteristic of High-Pressure Arc Columns.- 10.11 The Gap Between Electron and Gas Temperatures in "Equilibrium" Plasma.- 11. Suslainment and Production of Equilibrium Plasma by Fields in Various Frequency Ranges.- 11.1 Introduction. Energy Balance in Plasma.- 11.2 Arc Column in a Constant Field.- 11.3 Inductively Coupled Radio-Frequency Discharge.- 11.4 Discharge in Microwave Fields.- 11.5 Continuous Optical Discharges.- 11.6 Plasmatrons: Generators of Dense Low-Temperature Plasma.- 12. Spark and Corona Discharges.- 12.1 General Concepts.- 12.2 Individual Electron Avalanche.- 12.3 Concept of Streamers.- 12.4 Breakdown and Streamers in Electronegative Gases (Air) in Moderately Wide Gaps with a Uniform Field.- 12.5 Spark Channel.- 12.6 Corona Discharge.- 12.7 Models of Streamer Propagation.- 12.8 Breakdown in Long Air Gaps with Strongly Nonuniform Fields (Experimental Data).- 12.9 Leader Mechanism of Breakdown of Long Gaps.- 12.10 Return Wave (Return Stroke).- 12.11 Lightning.- 12.12 Negative Stepped Leader.- 13. Capacitively Coupled Radio-Frequency Discharge.- 13.1 Drift Oscillations of Electron Gas.- 13.2 Idealized Model of the Passage of High-Frequency Current Through a Long Plane Gap at Elevated Pressures.- 13.3 V - i Characteristic of Homogeneous Positive Columns.- 13.4 Two Forms of CCRF Discharge Realization and Constant Positive Potential of Space: Experiment.- 13.5 Electrical Processes in a Nonconducting Electrode Layer and the Mechanism of Closing the Circuit Current.- 13.6 Constant Positive Potential of the Weak-Current Discharge Plasma.- 13.7 High-Current Mode.- 13.8 The Structure of a Medium-Pressure Discharge: Results of Numerical Modeling.- 13.9 Normal Current Density in Weak-Current Mode and Limits on the Existence of this Mode.- 14. Discharges in High-Power CW CO2 Lasers.- 14.1 Principles of Operation of Electric-Discharge CO2 Lasers.- 14.2 Two Methods of Heat Removal from Lasers.- 14.3 Methods of Suppressing Instabilities.- 14.4 Organization of Large-Volume Discharges Involving Gas Pumping.- References. more

4,174 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: It is shown that the simplest nontrivial stochastic model for dielectric breakdown naturally leads to fractal structures for the discharge pattern. Planar discharges are studied in detail and the results are compared with properly designed experiments. more

1,162 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The nature of the silent discharge (dielectric barrier discharge) is reviewed. Theoretical models for describing its discharge physics and ensuing plasma chemistry are presented. The phenomena leading to gas breakdown in such electrode configurations at about atmospheric pressure are discussed. The current transport takes place within a large numer of short-lived microdischarges, the plasma conditions of which are investigated. The theoretical predictions are compared to measurements. Two entirely different applications of silent discharges are treated: industrial ozone production and the formation of excimers to generate ultraviolet radiation. The special capability of the silent discharge for large-scale industrial processing is demonstrated. > more

777 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
J.S. Chang1, P.A. Lawless, T. YamamotoInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Applications of corona discharge induced plasmas and unipolar ions are reviewed. Corona process applications emphasize one of two aspects of the discharge: the ions produced or the energetic electrons producing the plasma. The ion identities depend on the polarity of the discharge and the characteristics of the gas mixture, specifically on the electron attaching species. The electron energies depend on the gas characteristics and on the method of generating the corona. In general, in an application using ions, the corona induced plasma zone will occupy a small fraction of the total process volume, while a process using the electrons will fill most of the volume with the plasma. Current state-of-the knowledge of ionized environments and the function of corona discharge processes are discussed in detail. > more

765 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A review is presented of plasma chemical processes occurring in the volume part of electrical nonequilibrium discharges. The role of energetic electrons as initiators of chemical reactions in a cold background gas is discussed. Different discharge types of (glow, corona, silent, RF, and microwave discharges) are investigated with respect to their suitability for plasma processing. Emphasis is placed on the requirements of initiating and maintaining the discharge and, at the same time, optimizing plasma parameters for the desired chemical process. Using large-scale industrial ozone production as an example, the detailed process of discharge optimization is described. Other applications of volume plasma processing include other plasma chemical syntheses as well as decomposition processes such as flue gas treatment and hazardous waste disposal. The author only deals with plasmas which are not in equilibrium. > more

742 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Inoue Kiyoshi

66 papers, 382 citations

Akihiro Goto

24 papers, 201 citations

Igor Adamovich

23 papers, 472 citations

Bruce R. Locke

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Wayne C. Solomon

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