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Electric field

About: Electric field is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 87182 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1428292 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
22 Oct 2004-Science
TL;DR: Monocrystalline graphitic films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect.
Abstract: We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10 13 per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of ∼10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.

48,846 citations

30 Oct 2012
Abstract: Mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma V. Rozhansky. 1. Introduction.- 2. Conductivity tensor in partially ionized plasma.- 3. Main mechanisms of perpendicular conductivity in fully ionized plasma.- 4. Acceleration of plasma clouds in an inhomogeneous magnetic field.- 5. Alfven conductivity.- 6. Perpendicular viscosity, radial current, and radial electric field in an infinite cylinder.- 7. Current systems in front of a biased electrode (flush-mounted probe) and spot of emission.- 8. Currents in the vicinity of a biased electrode that is smaller than the ion gyroradius.- 9. Neoclassical perpendicular conductivity in a tokamak.- 10. Transverse conductivity in a reversed field pinch.- 11. Modeling of electric field and currents in the tokamak edge plasma.- 12. Mechanisms of anomalous perpendicular viscosity and viscosity-driven currents.- 13. Transverse conductivity in a stochastic magnetic field.- 14. Electric fields generated in the shielding layer between hot plasma and a solid state.-- Correlations and anomalous transport models O.G. Bakunin. 1. Introduction.- 2. Turbulent diffusion and transport.- 3. Non-local effects and diffusion equations.- 4. The Corrsin conjecture.- 5. Effects of seed diffusivity.- 6. The diffusive tracer equation and averaging.- 7. The quasi-linear approximation.- 8. The diffusive renormalization.- 9. Anomalous transport and convective cells.- 10. Stochastic instability and transport.- 11. Fractal conceptions and turbulence.- 12. Percolation and scalings.- 13. Percolation and turbulent transport scalings.- 14. The temporal hierarchy of scales and correlations.- 15. The stochastic magnetic field and percolation transport.- 16. Percolation in drift flows.- 17. Multiscale flows.- 18. Subdiffusion and traps.- 19. Continuous time random walks.- 20. Fractional differential equations and scalings.- 21. Correlation and phase-space.- 22. Conclusion.

3,684 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Nov 2003-Nature
TL;DR: The discovery of ferroelectricity in a perovskite manganite, TbMnO3, where the effect of spin frustration causes sinusoidal antiferromagnetic ordering and gigantic magnetoelectric and magnetocapacitance effects are found.
Abstract: The magnetoelectric effect--the induction of magnetization by means of an electric field and induction of polarization by means of a magnetic field--was first presumed to exist by Pierre Curie, and subsequently attracted a great deal of interest in the 1960s and 1970s (refs 2-4). More recently, related studies on magnetic ferroelectrics have signalled a revival of interest in this phenomenon. From a technological point of view, the mutual control of electric and magnetic properties is an attractive possibility, but the number of candidate materials is limited and the effects are typically too small to be useful in applications. Here we report the discovery of ferroelectricity in a perovskite manganite, TbMnO3, where the effect of spin frustration causes sinusoidal antiferromagnetic ordering. The modulated magnetic structure is accompanied by a magnetoelastically induced lattice modulation, and with the emergence of a spontaneous polarization. In the magnetic ferroelectric TbMnO3, we found gigantic magnetoelectric and magnetocapacitance effects, which can be attributed to switching of the electric polarization induced by magnetic fields. Frustrated spin systems therefore provide a new area to search for magnetoelectric media.

3,468 citations

01 Jan 1966
Abstract: Stationary Electric Fields. Stationary Magnetic Fields. Maxwell's Equations. The Electromagnetics of Circuits. Transmission Lines. Plane-Wave Propagation and Reflection. Two- and Three-Dimensional Boundary Value Problems. Waveguides with Cylindrical Conducting Boundaries. Special Waveguide Types. Resonant Cavities. Microwave Networks. Radiation. Electromagnetic Properties of Materials. Optics. Appendices. Index.

2,811 citations

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