Topic

# Electric potential

About: Electric potential is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13853 publications have been published within this topic receiving 199555 citations. The topic is also known as: electric field potential & electrostatic potential.

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TL;DR: In this article, a spin dependent one-electron potential pertinent to ground state properties is obtained from calculations of the total energy per electron made with a 'bubble' (or random phase) type of dielectric function.

Abstract: The local density theory is developed by Hohenberg, Kohn and Sham is extended to the spin polarized case. A spin dependent one- electron potential pertinent to ground state properties is obtained from calculations of the total energy per electron made with a 'bubble' (or random phase) type of dielectric function. The potential is found to be well represented by an analytic expression corresponding to a shifted and rescaled spin dependent Slater potential. To test this potential the momentum dependent spin susceptibility of an electron gas is calculated. The results compare favourably with available information from other calculations and from experiment. The potential obtained in this paper should be useful for split band calculations of magnetic materials.

3,750 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, the authors generalized the energy-level calculation to include arbitrary orientations of the constant energy ellipsoids in the bulk, the surface or interface, and an external magnetic field.

Abstract: The strong surface electric field associated with a semiconductor inversion layer quantizes the motion normal to the surface. The bulk energy bands split into electric sub-bands near the surface, each of which is a two-dimensional continuum associated with one of the quantized levels. We treat the electric quantum limit, in which only the lowest electric sub-band is occupied. Within the effective-mass approximation, we have generalized the energy-level calculation to include arbitrary orientations of (1) the constant-energy ellipsoids in the bulk, (2) the surface or interface, and (3) an external magnetic field. The potential associated with a charged center located an arbitrary distance from the surface is calculated, taking into account screening by carriers in the inversion layer. The bound states in the inversion layer due to attractive Coulomb centers are calculated for a model potential which assumes the inversion layer to have zero thickness. The Born approximation is compared with a phase-shift calculation of the scattering cross section, and is found to be reasonably good for the range of carrier concentrations encountered in InAs surfaces. The low-temperature mobility associated with screened Coulomb scattering by known charges at the surface and in the semiconductor depletion layer is calculated for InAs and for Si (100) surfaces in the Born approximation, using a potential that takes the inversion-layer charge distribution into account. The InAs results are in good agreement with experiment. In Si, but not in InAs, freeze-out of carriers into inversion-layer bound states is expected at low temperatures and low inversion-layer charge densities, and the predicted behavior is in qualitative agreement with experiment. An Appendix gives the phase-shift method for two-dimensional scattering and the exact cross section for scattering by an unscreened Coulomb potential.

1,468 citations

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TL;DR: An infinitesimal change in electric potential across a polyelectrolyte gel produces a discrete, reversible volume change, which can be several hundred times smaller than that of the swollen gel.

Abstract: An infinitesimal change in electric potential across a polyelectrolyte gel produces a discrete, reversible volume change. The volume of the collapsed gel can be several hundred times smaller than that of the swollen gel.

1,246 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the response of a two-dimensional electron gas to a longitudinal electric field of arbitrary wave vector and frequency is calculated in the selfconsistent field approximation, and the results are used to find the asymptotic screened Coulomb potential and the plasmon dispersion for a plane of electrons imbedded in a three-dimensional dielectric.

Abstract: The response of a two-dimensional electron gas to a longitudinal electric field of arbitrary wave vector and frequency is calculated in the self-consistent-field approximation. The results are used to find the asymptotic screened Coulomb potential and the plasmon dispersion for a plane of electrons imbedded in a three-dimensional dielectric.

1,218 citations

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TL;DR: The role of electrical potential, charge transport, and recombination in determining the photopotential and photocurrent conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells was studied in this paper.

Abstract: The role of electrical potential, charge transport, and recombination in determining the photopotential and photocurrent conversion efficiency (IPCE) of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cells was studied. Electrostatic arguments and electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) are used to obtain information on the electrical and electrochemical potential distribution in the cell. It is shown that on the macroscopic level, no significant electrical potential drop exists within the porous TiO2 when it contacts the electrolyte and that the electrical potential drop at the transparent conducting oxide substrate (TCO)/TiO2 interface occurs over a narrow region, one or two layers of TiO2. Analyses of EIS and other data indicate that both the photopotential of the cell and the decrease of the electrical potential drop across the TCO/TiO2 interface are caused by the buildup of photoinjected electrons in the TiO2 film. The time constants for the recombination and collection of the photoinjected electrons are measur...

771 citations