About: Electrical impedance is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 36015 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 371891 citation(s). The topic is also known as: electrical impedance & complex impedance.
Papers published on a yearly basis
04 Apr 2005
Abstract: Preface. Preface to the First Edition. Contributors. Contributors to the First Edition. Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Impedance Spectroscopy (J.Ross Macdonald and William B. Johnson). 1.1. Background, Basic Definitions, and History. 1.1.1 The Importance of Interfaces. 1.1.2 The Basic Impedance Spectroscopy Experiment. 1.1.3 Response to a Small-Signal Stimulus in the Frequency Domain. 1.1.4 Impedance-Related Functions. 1.1.5 Early History. 1.2. Advantages and Limitations. 1.2.1 Differences Between Solid State and Aqueous Electrochemistry. 1.3. Elementary Analysis of Impedance Spectra. 1.3.1 Physical Models for Equivalent Circuit Elements. 1.3.2 Simple RC Circuits. 1.3.3 Analysis of Single Impedance Arcs. 1.4. Selected Applications of IS. Chapter 2. Theory (Ian D. Raistrick, Donald R. Franceschetti, and J. Ross Macdonald). 2.1. The Electrical Analogs of Physical and Chemical Processes. 2.1.1 Introduction. 2.1.2 The Electrical Properties of Bulk Homogeneous Phases. 18.104.22.168 Introduction. 22.214.171.124 Dielectric Relaxation in Materials with a Single Time Constant. 126.96.36.199 Distributions of Relaxation Times. 188.8.131.52 Conductivity and Diffusion in Electrolytes. 184.108.40.206 Conductivity and Diffusion-a Statistical Description. 220.127.116.11 Migration in the Absence of Concentration Gradients. 18.104.22.168 Transport in Disordered Media. 2.1.3 Mass and Charge Transport in the Presence of Concentration Gradients. 22.214.171.124 Diffusion. 126.96.36.199 Mixed Electronic-Ionic Conductors. 188.8.131.52 Concentration Polarization. 2.1.4 Interfaces and Boundary Conditions. 184.108.40.206 Reversible and Irreversible Interfaces. 220.127.116.11 Polarizable Electrodes. 18.104.22.168 Adsorption at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface. 22.214.171.124 Charge Transfer at the Electrode-Electrolyte Interface. 2.1.5 Grain Boundary Effects. 2.1.6 Current Distribution, Porous and Rough Electrodes- the Effect of Geometry. 126.96.36.199 Current Distribution Problems. 188.8.131.52 Rough and Porous Electrodes. 2.2. Physical and Electrochemical Models. 2.2.1 The Modeling of Electrochemical Systems. 2.2.2 Equivalent Circuits. 184.108.40.206 Unification of Immitance Responses. 220.127.116.11 Distributed Circuit Elements. 18.104.22.168 Ambiguous Circuits. 2.2.3 Modeling Results. 22.214.171.124 Introduction. 126.96.36.199 Supported Situations. 188.8.131.52 Unsupported Situations: Theoretical Models. 184.108.40.206 Unsupported Situations: Equivalent Network Models. 220.127.116.11 Unsupported Situations: Empirical and Semiempirical Models. Chapter 3. Measuring Techniques and Data Analysis. 3.1. Impedance Measurement Techniques (Michael C. H. McKubre and Digby D. Macdonald). 3.1.1 Introduction. 3.1.2 Frequency Domain Methods. 18.104.22.168 Audio Frequency Bridges. 22.214.171.124 Transformer Ratio Arm Bridges. 126.96.36.199 Berberian-Cole Bridge. 188.8.131.52 Considerations of Potentiostatic Control. 184.108.40.206 Oscilloscopic Methods for Direct Measurement. 220.127.116.11 Phase-Sensitive Detection for Direct Measurement. 18.104.22.168 Automated Frequency Response Analysis. 22.214.171.124 Automated Impedance Analyzers. 126.96.36.199 The Use of Kramers-Kronig Transforms. 188.8.131.52 Spectrum Analyzers. 3.1.3 Time Domain Methods. 184.108.40.206 Introduction. 220.127.116.11 Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Conversion. 18.104.22.168 Computer Interfacing. 22.214.171.124 Digital Signal Processing. 3.1.4 Conclusions. 3.2. Commercially Available Impedance Measurement Systems (Brian Sayers). 3.2.1 Electrochemical Impedance Measurement Systems. 126.96.36.199 System Configuration. 188.8.131.52 Why Use a Potentiostat? 184.108.40.206 Measurements Using 2, 3 or 4-Terminal Techniques. 220.127.116.11 Measurement Resolution and Accuracy. 18.104.22.168 Single Sine and FFT Measurement Techniques. 22.214.171.124 Multielectrode Techniques. 126.96.36.199 Effects of Connections and Input Impedance. 188.8.131.52 Verification of Measurement Performance. 184.108.40.206 Floating Measurement Techniques. 220.127.116.11 Multichannel Techniques. 3.2.2 Materials Impedance Measurement Systems. 18.104.22.168 System Configuration. 22.214.171.124 Measurement of Low Impedance Materials. 126.96.36.199 Measurement of High Impedance Materials. 188.8.131.52 Reference Techniques. 184.108.40.206 Normalization Techniques. 220.127.116.11 High Voltage Measurement Techniques. 18.104.22.168 Temperature Control. 22.214.171.124 Sample Holder Considerations. 3.3. Data Analysis (J. Ross Macdonald). 3.3.1 Data Presentation and Adjustment. 126.96.36.199 Previous Approaches. 188.8.131.52 Three-Dimensional Perspective Plotting. 184.108.40.206 Treatment of Anomalies. 3.3.2 Data Analysis Methods. 220.127.116.11 Simple Methods. 18.104.22.168 Complex Nonlinear Least Squares. 22.214.171.124 Weighting. 126.96.36.199 Which Impedance-Related Function to Fit? 188.8.131.52 The Question of "What to Fit" Revisited. 184.108.40.206 Deconvolution Approaches. 220.127.116.11 Examples of CNLS Fitting. 18.104.22.168 Summary and Simple Characterization Example. Chapter 4. Applications of Impedance Spectroscopy. 4.1. Characterization of Materials (N. Bonanos, B. C. H. Steele, and E. P. Butler). 4.1.1 Microstructural Models for Impedance Spectra of Materials. 22.214.171.124 Introduction. 126.96.36.199 Layer Models. 188.8.131.52 Effective Medium Models. 184.108.40.206 Modeling of Composite Electrodes. 4.1.2 Experimental Techniques. 220.127.116.11 Introduction. 18.104.22.168 Measurement Systems. 22.214.171.124 Sample Preparation-Electrodes. 126.96.36.199 Problems Associated With the Measurement of Electrode Properties. 4.1.3 Interpretation of the Impedance Spectra of Ionic Conductors and Interfaces. 188.8.131.52 Introduction. 184.108.40.206 Characterization of Grain Boundaries by IS. 220.127.116.11 Characterization of Two-Phase Dispersions by IS. 18.104.22.168 Impedance Spectra of Unusual Two-phase Systems. 22.214.171.124 Impedance Spectra of Composite Electrodes. 126.96.36.199 Closing Remarks. 4.2. Characterization of the Electrical Response of High Resistivity Ionic and Dielectric Solid Materials by Immittance Spectroscopy (J. Ross Macdonald). 4.2.1 Introduction. 4.2.2 Types of Dispersive Response Models: Strengths and Weaknesses. 188.8.131.52 Overview. 184.108.40.206 Variable-slope Models. 220.127.116.11 Composite Models. 4.2.3 Illustration of Typical Data Fitting Results for an Ionic Conductor. 4.3. Solid State Devices (William B. Johnson and Wayne L. Worrell). 4.3.1 Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor (EIS) Sensors. 4.3.2 Solid Electrolyte Chemical Sensors. 4.3.3 Photoelectrochemical Solar Cells. 4.3.4 Impedance Response of Electrochromic Materials and Devices (Gunnar A. Niklasson, Anna Karin Johsson, and Maria Stromme). 18.104.22.168 Introduction. 22.214.171.124 Materials. 126.96.36.199 Experimental Techniques. 188.8.131.52 Experimental Results on Single Materials. 184.108.40.206 Experimental Results on Electrochromic Devices. 220.127.116.11 Conclusions and Outlook. 4.3.5 Time-Resolved Photocurrent Generation (Albert Goossens). 18.104.22.168 Introduction-Semiconductors. 22.214.171.124 Steady-State Photocurrents. 126.96.36.199 Time-of-Flight. 188.8.131.52 Intensity-Modulated Photocurrent Spectroscopy. 184.108.40.206 Final Remarks. 4.4. Corrosion of Materials (Digby D. Macdonald and Michael C. H. McKubre). 4.4.1 Introduction. 4.4.2 Fundamentals. 4.4.3 Measurement of Corrosion Rate. 4.4.4 Harmonic Analysis. 4.4.5 Kramer-Kronig Transforms. 4.4.6 Corrosion Mechanisms. 220.127.116.11 Active Dissolution. 18.104.22.168 Active-Passive Transition. 22.214.171.124 The Passive State. 4.4.7 Point Defect Model of the Passive State (Digby D. Macdonald). 126.96.36.199 Introduction. 188.8.131.52 Point Defect Model. 184.108.40.206 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy. 220.127.116.11 Bilayer Passive Films. 4.4.8 Equivalent Circuit Analysis (Digby D. Macdonald and Michael C. H. McKubre). 18.104.22.168 Coatings. 4.4.9 Other Impedance Techniques. 22.214.171.124 Electrochemical Hydrodynamic Impedance (EHI). 126.96.36.199 Fracture Transfer Function (FTF). 188.8.131.52 Electrochemical Mechanical Impedance. 4.5. Electrochemical Power Sources. 4.5.1 Special Aspects of Impedance Modeling of Power Sources (Evgenij Barsoukov). 184.108.40.206 Intrinsic Relation Between Impedance Properties and Power Sources Performance. 220.127.116.11 Linear Time-Domain Modeling Based on Impedance Models, Laplace Transform. 18.104.22.168 Expressing Model Parameters in Electrical Terms, Limiting Resistances and Capacitances of Distributed Elements. 22.214.171.124 Discretization of Distributed Elements, Augmenting Equivalent Circuits. 126.96.36.199 Nonlinear Time-Domain Modeling of Power Sources Based on Impedance Models. 188.8.131.52 Special Kinds of Impedance Measurement Possible with Power Sources-Passive Load Excitation and Load Interrupt. 4.5.2 Batteries (Evgenij Barsoukov). 184.108.40.206 Generic Approach to Battery Impedance Modeling. 220.127.116.11 Lead Acid Batteries. 18.104.22.168 Nickel Cadmium Batteries. 22.214.171.124 Nickel Metal-hydride Batteries. 126.96.36.199 Li-ion Batteries. 4.5.3 Impedance Behavior of Electrochemical Supercapacitors and Porous Electrodes (Brian E. Conway). 188.8.131.52 Introduction. 184.108.40.206 The Time Factor in Capacitance Charge or Discharge. 220.127.116.11 Nyquist (or Argand) Complex-Plane Plots for Representation of Impedance Behavior. 18.104.22.168 Bode Plots of Impedance Parameters for Capacitors. 22.214.171.124 Hierarchy of Equivalent Circuits and Representation of Electrochemical Capacitor Behavior. 126.96.36.199 Impedance and Voltammetry Behavior of Brush Electrode Models of Porous Electrodes. 188.8.131.52 Impedance Behavior of Supercapacitors Based on Pseudocapacitance. 184.108.40.206 Deviations of Double-layer Capacitance from Ideal Behavior: Representation by a Constant-phase Element (CPE). 4.5.4 Fuel Cells (Norbert Wagner). 220.127.116.11 Introduction. 18.104.22.168 Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC). 22.214.171.124 Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFC). 126.96.36.199 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). Appendix. Abbreviations and Definitions of Models. References. Index.
TL;DR: In this paper, a method is presented for determining the complex permittivity and permeability of linear materials in the frequency domain by a single time-domain measurement; typically, the frequency band extends from VHF through X band.
Abstract: In this paper a method is presented for determining the complex permittivity and permeability of linear materials in the frequency domain by a single time-domain measurement; typically, the frequency band extends from VHF through X band. The technique described involves placing an unknown sample in a microwave TEM-mode fixture and exciting the sample with a subnanosecond baseband pulse. The fixture is used to facilitate the measurement of the forward- and back-scattered energy, s21(t) and s11(t), respectively. It is shown in this paper that the forward- and back-scattered time-domain "signatures" are uniquely related to the intrinsic properties of the materials, namely, e* and ?*. By appropriately interpreting s21(t) and s11(t), one is able to determine the real and imaginary parts of ? and ? as a function of frequency. Experimental results are presented describing several familiar materials.
01 Jul 1965
TL;DR: It is concluded that the patient's skin should be abraded to reduce impedance, and measurements should be avoided in the first 10 min after electrode placement, to allow satisfactory images.
Abstract: A computer simulation is used to investigate the relationship between skin impedance and image artefacts in electrical impedance tomography. Sets of electrode impedance are generated with a pseudo-random distribution and used to introduce errors in boundary voltage measurements. To simplify the analysis, the non-idealities in the current injection circuit are replaced by a fixed common-mode error term. The boundary voltages are reconstructed into images and inspected. Where the simulated skin impedance remains constant between measurements, large impedances (> 2k omega) do not cause significant degradation of the image. Where the skin impedances 'drift' between measurements, a drift of 5% from a starting impedance of 100 omega is sufficient to cause significant image distortion. If the skin impedances vary randomly between measurements, they have to be less than 10 omega to allow satisfactory images. Skin impedances are typically 100-200 omega at 50 kHz on unprepared skin. These values are sufficient to cause image distortion if they drift over time. It is concluded that the patient's skin should be abraded to reduce impedance, and measurements should be avoided in the first 10 min after electrode placement.
TL;DR: In this paper, the results obtained on the electrochemical behavior of electrochemical capacitors assembled in nonaqueous electrolyte are presented and the impedance of the supercapacitors is discussed in terms of complex capacitance and complex power.
Abstract: This paper presents the results obtained on the electrochemical behavior of electrochemical capacitors assembled in nonaqueous electrolyte. The first part is devoted to the electrochemical characterization of carbon-carbon 4 cm2 cells systems in terms of capacitance, resistance, and cyclability. The second part is focused on the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study of the cells. Nyquist plots are presented and the impedance of the supercapacitors is discussed in terms of complex capacitance and complex power. This allows the determination of a relaxation time constant of the systems, and the real and the imaginary part of the complex power vs. the frequency plots give information on the supercapacitor cells frequency behavior. The complex impedance plots for both a supercapacitor and a tantalum dielectric capacitor cells are compared. © 2003 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.
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