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Electrical resistivity and conductivity

About: Electrical resistivity and conductivity is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 62162 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1078632 citation(s).

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Abstract: Metallic, oxygen-deficient compounds in the Ba−La−Cu−O system, with the composition BaxLa5−xCu5O5(3−y) have been prepared in polycrystalline form. Samples withx=1 and 0.75,y>0, annealed below 900°C under reducing conditions, consist of three phases, one of them a perovskite-like mixed-valent copper compound. Upon cooling, the samples show a linear decrease in resistivity, then an approximately logarithmic increase, interpreted as a beginning of localization. Finally an abrupt decrease by up to three orders of magnitude occurs, reminiscent of the onset of percolative superconductivity. The highest onset temperature is observed in the 30 K range. It is markedly reduced by high current densities. Thus, it results partially from the percolative nature, bute possibly also from 2D superconducting fluctuations of double perovskite layers of one of the phases present.

9,792 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The structure of the electronic energy bands and Brillouin zones for graphite is developed using the "tight binding" approximation. Graphite is found to be a semi-conductor with zero activation energy, i.e., there are no free electrons at zero temperature, but they are created at higher temperatures by excitation to a band contiguous to the highest one which is normally filled. The electrical conductivity is treated with assumptions about the mean free path. It is found to be about 100 times as great parallel to as across crystal planes. A large and anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility is predicted for the conduction electrons; this is greatest for fields across the layers. The volume optical absorption is accounted for.

4,262 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
15 Apr 1994-Science
TL;DR: A negative isotropic magnetoresistance effect has been observed in thin oxide films of perovskite-like La0.67Ca0.33MnOx, which could be useful for various magnetic and electric device applications if the observed effects of material processing are optimized.
Abstract: A negative isotropic magnetoresistance effect more than three orders of magnitude larger than the typical giant magnetoresistance of some superlattice films has been observed in thin oxide films of perovskite-like La0.67Ca0.33MnOx. Epitaxial films that are grown on LaAIO3 substrates by laser ablation and suitably heat treated exhibit magnetoresistance values as high as 127,000 percent near 77 kelvin and ∼1300 percent near room temperature. Such a phenomenon could be useful for various magnetic and electric device applications if the observed effects of material processing are optimized. Possible mechanisms for the observed effect are discussed.

3,944 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Jan 2008-Nature
Abstract: Approximately 90 per cent of the world's power is generated by heat engines that use fossil fuel combustion as a heat source and typically operate at 30-40 per cent efficiency, such that roughly 15 terawatts of heat is lost to the environment. Thermoelectric modules could potentially convert part of this low-grade waste heat to electricity. Their efficiency depends on the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT of their material components, which is a function of the Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and absolute temperature. Over the past five decades it has been challenging to increase ZT > 1, since the parameters of ZT are generally interdependent. While nanostructured thermoelectric materials can increase ZT > 1 (refs 2-4), the materials (Bi, Te, Pb, Sb, and Ag) and processes used are not often easy to scale to practically useful dimensions. Here we report the electrochemical synthesis of large-area, wafer-scale arrays of rough Si nanowires that are 20-300 nm in diameter. These nanowires have Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity values that are the same as doped bulk Si, but those with diameters of about 50 nm exhibit 100-fold reduction in thermal conductivity, yielding ZT = 0.6 at room temperature. For such nanowires, the lattice contribution to thermal conductivity approaches the amorphous limit for Si, which cannot be explained by current theories. Although bulk Si is a poor thermoelectric material, by greatly reducing thermal conductivity without much affecting the Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity, Si nanowire arrays show promise as high-performance, scalable thermoelectric materials.

3,446 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Doped polyacetylene forms a new class of conducting polymers in which the electrical conductivity can be systematically and continuously varied over a range of eleven orders of magnitude. Transport studies and far-infrared transmission measurements imply a metal-to-insulator transition at dopant concentrations near 1%.

2,807 citations

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