About: Electroluminescence is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21660 publications have been published within this topic receiving 536766 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this article, a double-layer structure of organic thin films was prepared by vapor deposition, and efficient injection of holes and electrons was provided from an indium-tinoxide anode and an alloyed Mg:Ag cathode.
Abstract: A novel electroluminescent device is constructed using organic materials as the emitting elements. The diode has a double‐layer structure of organic thin films, prepared by vapor deposition. Efficient injection of holes and electrons is provided from an indium‐tin‐oxide anode and an alloyed Mg:Ag cathode. Electron‐hole recombination and green electroluminescent emission are confined near the organic interface region. High external quantum efficiency (1% photon/electron), luminous efficiency (1.5 lm/W), and brightness (>1000 cd/m2) are achievable at a driving voltage below 10 V.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors demonstrate that poly(p-phenylene vinylene), prepared by way of a solution-processable precursor, can be used as the active element in a large-area light-emitting diode.
Abstract: CONJUGATED polymers are organic semiconductors, the semiconducting behaviour being associated with the π molecular orbitals delocalized along the polymer chain. Their main advantage over non-polymeric organic semiconductors is the possibility of processing the polymer to form useful and robust structures. The response of the system to electronic excitation is nonlinear—the injection of an electron and a hole on the conjugated chain can lead to a self-localized excited state which can then decay radiatively, suggesting the possibility of using these materials in electroluminescent devices. We demonstrate here that poly(p-phenylene vinylene), prepared by way of a solution-processable precursor, can be used as the active element in a large-area light-emitting diode. The combination of good structural properties of this polymer, its ease of fabrication, and light emission in the green–yellow part of the spectrum with reasonably high efficiency, suggest that the polymer can be used for the development of large-area light-emitting displays.
TL;DR: In this article, a host material doped with the phosphorescent dye PtOEP (PtOEP II) was used to achieve high energy transfer from both singlet and triplet states.
Abstract: The efficiency of electroluminescent organic light-emitting devices1,2 can be improved by the introduction3 of a fluorescent dye. Energy transfer from the host to the dye occurs via excitons, but only the singlet spin states induce fluorescent emission; these represent a small fraction (about 25%) of the total excited-state population (the remainder are triplet states). Phosphorescent dyes, however, offer a means of achieving improved light-emission efficiencies, as emission may result from both singlet and triplet states. Here we report high-efficiency (≳90%) energy transfer from both singlet and triplet states, in a host material doped with the phosphorescent dye 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octaethyl-21H,23H-porphine platinum(II) (PtOEP). Our doped electroluminescent devices generate saturated red emission with peak external and internal quantum efficiencies of 4% and 23%, respectively. The luminescent efficiencies attainable with phosphorescent dyes may lead to new applications for organic materials. Moreover, our work establishes the utility of PtOEP as a probe of triplet behaviour and energy transfer in organic solid-state systems.
TL;DR: A class of metal-free organic electroluminescent molecules in which the energy gap between the singlet and triplet excited states is minimized by design, thereby promoting highly efficient spin up-conversion from non-radiative triplet states to radiative singlet states while maintaining high radiative decay rates.
Abstract: The inherent flexibility afforded by molecular design has accelerated the development of a wide variety of organic semiconductors over the past two decades. In particular, great advances have been made in the development of materials for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), from early devices based on fluorescent molecules to those using phosphorescent molecules. In OLEDs, electrically injected charge carriers recombine to form singlet and triplet excitons in a 1:3 ratio; the use of phosphorescent metal-organic complexes exploits the normally non-radiative triplet excitons and so enhances the overall electroluminescence efficiency. Here we report a class of metal-free organic electroluminescent molecules in which the energy gap between the singlet and triplet excited states is minimized by design, thereby promoting highly efficient spin up-conversion from non-radiative triplet states to radiative singlet states while maintaining high radiative decay rates, of more than 10(6) decays per second. In other words, these molecules harness both singlet and triplet excitons for light emission through fluorescence decay channels, leading to an intrinsic fluorescence efficiency in excess of 90 per cent and a very high external electroluminescence efficiency, of more than 19 per cent, which is comparable to that achieved in high-efficiency phosphorescence-based OLEDs.
TL;DR: In this article, a hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device was constructed based on the recombination of holes injected into a layer of semiconducting p-paraphenylene vinylene (PPV) with electrons injected into the multilayer film of cadmium selenide nanocrystals.
Abstract: ELECTROLUMINESCENT devices have been developed recently that are based on new materials such as porous silicon1 and semiconducting polymers2,3. By taking advantage of developments in the preparation and characterization of direct-gap semiconductor nanocrystals4–6, and of electroluminescent polymers7, we have now constructed a hybrid organic/inorganic electroluminescent device. Light emission arises from the recombination of holes injected into a layer of semiconducting p-paraphenylene vinylene (PPV)8–10 with electrons injected into a multilayer film of cadmium selenide nanocrystals. Close matching of the emitting layer of nanocrystals with the work function of the metal contact leads to an operating voltage11 of only 4V. At low voltages emission from the CdSe layer occurs. Because of the quantum size effect19–24 the colour of this emission can be varied from red to yellow by changing the nanocrystal size. At higher voltages green emission from the polymer layer predominates. Thus this device has a degree of voltage tunability of colour.