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About: Electrolysis is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 32741 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 413774 citation(s). more

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Journal ArticleDOI
Aleksey Yerokhin1, Xueyuan Nie2, Adrian Leyland2, Allan Matthews2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: This paper overviews the relatively new surface engineering discipline of plasma electrolysis, the main derivative of this being plasma electrolytic deposition (PED), which includes techniques such as plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) and plasma electrolytic saturation (PES) processes such as plasma electrolytic nitriding/carburizing (PEN/PEC). In PED technology, spark or arc plasma micro-discharges in an aqueous solution are utilised to ionise gaseous media from the solution such that complex compounds are synthesised on the metal surface through the plasma chemical interactions. The physical and chemical fundamentals of plasma electrolysis are discussed here. The equipment and deposition procedures for coating production are described, and the effects of electrolyte composition and temperature on ignition voltage, discharge intensity and deposited layer thickness and composition are outlined. AC-pulse PEO treatment of aluminium in a suitable passivating electrolyte allows the formation of relatively thick (up to 500 μm) and hard (up to 23 GPa) surface layers with excellent adhesion to the substrate. A 10–20 μm thick surface compound layer (1200HV) and 200–300 μm inner diffusion layer with very good mechanical and corrosion-resistant properties can also be formed on steel substrates in only 3–5 min by use of the PEN/PEC saturation techniques. Details are given of the basic operational characteristics of the various techniques, and the physical, mechanical and tribological characteristics of coatings produced by plasma electrolytic treatments are presented. more

2,347 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The catalytically active Ni2P nanoparticles had among the highest HER activity of any non-noble metal electrocatalyst reported to date, producing H2(g) with nearly quantitative faradaic yield, while also affording stability in aqueous acidic media. more

Abstract: Nanoparticles of nickel phosphide (Ni2P) have been investigated for electrocatalytic activity and stability for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in acidic solutions, under which proton exchange membrane-based electrolysis is operational. The catalytically active Ni2P nanoparticles were hollow and faceted to expose a high density of the Ni2P(001) surface, which has previously been predicted based on theory to be an active HER catalyst. The Ni2P nanoparticles had among the highest HER activity of any non-noble metal electrocatalyst reported to date, producing H2(g) with nearly quantitative faradaic yield, while also affording stability in aqueous acidic media. more

2,156 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Kai Zeng1, Dongke Zhang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Alkaline water electrolysis is one of the easiest methods for hydrogen production, offering the advantage of simplicity. The challenges for widespread use of water electrolysis are to reduce energy consumption, cost and maintenance and to increase reliability, durability and safety. This literature review examines the current state of knowledge and technology of hydrogen production by water electrolysis and identifies areas where R&D effort is needed in order to improve this technology. Following an overview of the fundamentals of alkaline water electrolysis, an electrical circuit analogy of resistances in the electrolysis system is introduced. The resistances are classified into three categories, namely the electrical resistances, the reaction resistances and the transport resistances. This is followed by a thorough analysis of each of the resistances, by means of thermodynamics and kinetics, to provide a scientific guidance to minimising the resistance in order to achieve a greater efficiency of alkaline water electrolysis. The thermodynamic analysis defines various electrolysis efficiencies based on theoretical energy input and cell voltage, respectively. These efficiencies are then employed to compare different electrolysis cell designs and to identify the means to overcome the key resistances for efficiency improvement. The kinetic analysis reveals the dependence of reaction resistances on the alkaline concentration, ion transfer, and reaction sites on the electrode surface, the latter is determined by the electrode materials. A quantitative relationship between the cell voltage components and current density is established, which links all the resistances and manifests the importance of reaction resistances and bubble resistances. The important effect of gas bubbles formed on the electrode surface and the need to minimise the ion transport resistance are highlighted. The historical development and continuous improvement in the alkaline water electrolysis technology are examined and different water electrolysis technologies are systematically compared using a set of the practical parameters derived from the thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. In addition to the efficiency improvements, the needs for reduction in equipment and maintenance costs, and improvement in reliability and durability are also established. The future research needs are also discussed from the aspects of electrode materials, electrolyte additives and bubble management, serving as a comprehensive guide for continuous development of the water electrolysis technology. more

1,933 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
O. Khaselev1, John A. Turner1Institutions (1)
17 Apr 1998-Science
TL;DR: Direct water electrolysis was achieved with a novel, integrated, monolithic photoelectrochemical-photovoltaic design that splits water directly upon illumination; light is the only energy input. more

Abstract: Direct water electrolysis was achieved with a novel, integrated, monolithic photoelectrochemical-photovoltaic design. This photoelectrochemical cell, which is voltage biased with an integrated photovoltaic device, splits water directly upon illumination; light is the only energy input. The hydrogen production efficiency of this system, based on the short-circuit current and the lower heating value of hydrogen, is 12.4 percent. more

1,928 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
M. Götz1, J. Lefebvre1, Friedemann Mörs1, Amy McDaniel Koch1  +4 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Jan 2016-Renewable Energy
Abstract: The Power-to-Gas (PtG) process chain could play a significant role in the future energy system. Renewable electric energy can be transformed into storable methane via electrolysis and subsequent methanation. This article compares the available electrolysis and methanation technologies with respect to the stringent requirements of the PtG chain such as low CAPEX, high efficiency, and high flexibility. Three water electrolysis technologies are considered: alkaline electrolysis, PEM electrolysis, and solid oxide electrolysis. Alkaline electrolysis is currently the cheapest technology; however, in the future PEM electrolysis could be better suited for the PtG process chain. Solid oxide electrolysis could also be an option in future, especially if heat sources are available. Several different reactor concepts can be used for the methanation reaction. For catalytic methanation, typically fixed-bed reactors are used; however, novel reactor concepts such as three-phase methanation and micro reactors are currently under development. Another approach is the biochemical conversion. The bioprocess takes place in aqueous solutions and close to ambient temperatures. Finally, the whole process chain is discussed. Critical aspects of the PtG process are the availability of CO 2 sources, the dynamic behaviour of the individual process steps, and especially the economics as well as the efficiency. more

1,361 citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Manuel A. Rodrigo

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Pablo Cañizares

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Wei Han

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