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Electrolyte

About: Electrolyte is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 124601 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 2337639 citation(s). The topic is also known as: electrolyte solution & electrolytes.
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The challenges for further development of Li rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles are reviewed. Most important is safety, which requires development of a nonflammable electrolyte with either a larger window between its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or a constituent (or additive) that can develop rapidly a solid/ electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer to prevent plating of Li on a carbon anode during a fast charge of the battery. A high Li-ion conductivity (σ Li > 10 ―4 S/cm) in the electrolyte and across the electrode/ electrolyte interface is needed for a power battery. Important also is an increase in the density of the stored energy, which is the product of the voltage and capacity of reversible Li insertion/extraction into/from the electrodes. It will be difficult to design a better anode than carbon, but carbon requires formation of an SEI layer, which involves an irreversible capacity loss. The design of a cathode composed of environmentally benign, low-cost materials that has its electrochemical potential μ C well-matched to the HOMO of the electrolyte and allows access to two Li atoms per transition-metal cation would increase the energy density, but it is a daunting challenge. Two redox couples can be accessed where the cation redox couples are "pinned" at the top of the O 2p bands, but to take advantage of this possibility, it must be realized in a framework structure that can accept more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation. Moreover, such a situation represents an intrinsic voltage limit of the cathode, and matching this limit to the HOMO of the electrolyte requires the ability to tune the intrinsic voltage limit. Finally, the chemical compatibility in the battery must allow a long service life.

7,138 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions; and developing a Li(+) solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively.
Abstract: Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid–solution range. The solid–solution range, which is...

5,431 citations


Journal Article
01 Jan 2011-Science
TL;DR: Mesoscopic solar cells that incorporate a Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl)–based redox electrolyte in conjunction with a custom synthesized donor-π-bridge-acceptor zinc porphyrin dye as sensitizer are reported, enabling attainment of strikingly high photovoltages approaching 1 volt.
Abstract: Simultaneous modification of the dye and redox shuttle boosts the efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell. The iodide/triiodide redox shuttle has limited the efficiencies accessible in dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we report mesoscopic solar cells that incorporate a Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl)–based redox electrolyte in conjunction with a custom synthesized donor-π-bridge-acceptor zinc porphyrin dye as sensitizer (designated YD2-o-C8). The specific molecular design of YD2-o-C8 greatly retards the rate of interfacial back electron transfer from the conduction band of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide film to the oxidized cobalt mediator, which enables attainment of strikingly high photovoltages approaching 1 volt. Because the YD2-o-C8 porphyrin harvests sunlight across the visible spectrum, large photocurrents are generated. Cosensitization of YD2-o-C8 with another organic dye further enhances the performance of the device, leading to a measured power conversion efficiency of 12.3% under simulated air mass 1.5 global sunlight.

5,230 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Sep 2004-Chemical Reviews
TL;DR: This paper will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior.
Abstract: In the previous paper Ralph Brodd and Martin Winter described the different kinds of batteries and fuel cells. In this paper I will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior. The lithium battery industry is undergoing rapid expansion, now representing the largest segment of the portable battery industry and dominating the computer, cell phone, and camera power source industry. However, the present secondary batteries use expensive components, which are not in sufficient supply to allow the industry to grow at the same rate in the next decade. Moreover, the safety of the system is questionable for the large-scale batteries needed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Another battery need is for a high-power system that can be used for power tools, where only the environmentally hazardous Ni/ Cd battery presently meets the requirements. A battery is a transducer that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. It contains an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. The anode, in the case of a lithium battery, is the source of lithium ions. The cathode is the sink for the lithium ions and is chosen to optimize a number of parameters, discussed below. The electrolyte provides for the separation of ionic transport and electronic transport, and in a perfect battery the lithium ion transport number will be unity in the electrolyte. The cell potential is determined by the difference between the chemical potential of the lithium in the anode and cathode, ∆G ) -EF. As noted above, the lithium ions flow through the electrolyte whereas the electrons generated from the reaction, Li ) Li+ + e-, go through the external circuit to do work. Thus, the electrode system must allow for the flow of both lithium ions and electrons. That is, it must be both a good ionic conductor and an electronic conductor. As discussed below, many electrochemically active materials are not good electronic conductors, so it is necessary to add an electronically conductive material such as carbon * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone and fax: (607) 777-4623. E-mail: stanwhit@binghamton.edu. 4271 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4271−4301

4,916 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
22 Sep 2006-Science
TL;DR: The results challenge the long-held axiom that pores smaller than the size of solvated electrolyte ions are incapable of contributing to charge storage.
Abstract: Carbon supercapacitors, which are energy storage devices that use ion adsorption on the surface of highly porous materials to store charge, have numerous advantages over other power-source technologies, but could realize further gains if their electrodes were properly optimized. Studying the effect of the pore size on capacitance could potentially improve performance by maximizing the electrode surface area accessible to electrolyte ions, but until recently, no studies had addressed the lower size limit of accessible pores. Using carbide-derived carbon, we generated pores with average sizes from 0.6 to 2.25 nanometer and studied double-layer capacitance in an organic electrolyte. The results challenge the long-held axiom that pores smaller than the size of solvated electrolyte ions are incapable of contributing to charge storage.

2,964 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022240
20215,271
20207,090
20197,342
20186,720
20176,183

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Martin Winter

255 papers, 11.4K citations

Stefano Passerini

208 papers, 9.6K citations

Bruno Scrosati

158 papers, 11.1K citations

Maria Forsyth

152 papers, 6.3K citations

Norio Takami

148 papers, 2.9K citations