About: Electrolyte is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 124601 publications have been published within this topic receiving 2337639 citations. The topic is also known as: electrolyte solution & electrolytes.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the challenges for further development of Li rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles and proposed a nonflammable electrolyte with either a larger window between its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or a constituent that can develop rapidly a solid/ electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer to prevent plating of Li on a carbon anode during a fast charge of the battery.
Abstract: The challenges for further development of Li rechargeable batteries for electric vehicles are reviewed. Most important is safety, which requires development of a nonflammable electrolyte with either a larger window between its lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) and highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or a constituent (or additive) that can develop rapidly a solid/ electrolyte-interface (SEI) layer to prevent plating of Li on a carbon anode during a fast charge of the battery. A high Li-ion conductivity (σ Li > 10 ―4 S/cm) in the electrolyte and across the electrode/ electrolyte interface is needed for a power battery. Important also is an increase in the density of the stored energy, which is the product of the voltage and capacity of reversible Li insertion/extraction into/from the electrodes. It will be difficult to design a better anode than carbon, but carbon requires formation of an SEI layer, which involves an irreversible capacity loss. The design of a cathode composed of environmentally benign, low-cost materials that has its electrochemical potential μ C well-matched to the HOMO of the electrolyte and allows access to two Li atoms per transition-metal cation would increase the energy density, but it is a daunting challenge. Two redox couples can be accessed where the cation redox couples are "pinned" at the top of the O 2p bands, but to take advantage of this possibility, it must be realized in a framework structure that can accept more than one Li atom per transition-metal cation. Moreover, such a situation represents an intrinsic voltage limit of the cathode, and matching this limit to the HOMO of the electrolyte requires the ability to tune the intrinsic voltage limit. Finally, the chemical compatibility in the battery must allow a long service life.
TL;DR: New strategies are needed for batteries that go beyond powering hand-held devices, such as using electrode hosts with two-electron redox centers; replacing the cathode hosts by materials that undergo displacement reactions; and developing a Li(+) solid electrolyte separator membrane that allows an organic and aqueous liquid electrolyte on the anode and cathode sides, respectively.
Abstract: Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid–solution range. The solid–solution range, which is...
TL;DR: This paper will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior.
Abstract: In the previous paper Ralph Brodd and Martin Winter described the different kinds of batteries and fuel cells. In this paper I will describe lithium batteries in more detail, building an overall foundation for the papers that follow which describe specific components in some depth and usually with an emphasis on the materials behavior. The lithium battery industry is undergoing rapid expansion, now representing the largest segment of the portable battery industry and dominating the computer, cell phone, and camera power source industry. However, the present secondary batteries use expensive components, which are not in sufficient supply to allow the industry to grow at the same rate in the next decade. Moreover, the safety of the system is questionable for the large-scale batteries needed for hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). Another battery need is for a high-power system that can be used for power tools, where only the environmentally hazardous Ni/ Cd battery presently meets the requirements. A battery is a transducer that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and vice versa. It contains an anode, a cathode, and an electrolyte. The anode, in the case of a lithium battery, is the source of lithium ions. The cathode is the sink for the lithium ions and is chosen to optimize a number of parameters, discussed below. The electrolyte provides for the separation of ionic transport and electronic transport, and in a perfect battery the lithium ion transport number will be unity in the electrolyte. The cell potential is determined by the difference between the chemical potential of the lithium in the anode and cathode, ∆G ) -EF. As noted above, the lithium ions flow through the electrolyte whereas the electrons generated from the reaction, Li ) Li+ + e-, go through the external circuit to do work. Thus, the electrode system must allow for the flow of both lithium ions and electrons. That is, it must be both a good ionic conductor and an electronic conductor. As discussed below, many electrochemically active materials are not good electronic conductors, so it is necessary to add an electronically conductive material such as carbon * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone and fax: (607) 777-4623. E-mail: email@example.com. 4271 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 4271−4301
TL;DR: Mesoscopic solar cells that incorporate a Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl)–based redox electrolyte in conjunction with a custom synthesized donor-π-bridge-acceptor zinc porphyrin dye as sensitizer are reported, enabling attainment of strikingly high photovoltages approaching 1 volt.
Abstract: Simultaneous modification of the dye and redox shuttle boosts the efficiency of a dye-sensitized solar cell. The iodide/triiodide redox shuttle has limited the efficiencies accessible in dye-sensitized solar cells. Here, we report mesoscopic solar cells that incorporate a Co(II/III)tris(bipyridyl)–based redox electrolyte in conjunction with a custom synthesized donor-π-bridge-acceptor zinc porphyrin dye as sensitizer (designated YD2-o-C8). The specific molecular design of YD2-o-C8 greatly retards the rate of interfacial back electron transfer from the conduction band of the nanocrystalline titanium dioxide film to the oxidized cobalt mediator, which enables attainment of strikingly high photovoltages approaching 1 volt. Because the YD2-o-C8 porphyrin harvests sunlight across the visible spectrum, large photocurrents are generated. Cosensitization of YD2-o-C8 with another organic dye further enhances the performance of the device, leading to a measured power conversion efficiency of 12.3% under simulated air mass 1.5 global sunlight.
TL;DR: A lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure that exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature, which represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes.
Abstract: Batteries are a key technology in modern society. They are used to power electric and hybrid electric vehicles and to store wind and solar energy in smart grids. Electrochemical devices with high energy and power densities can currently be powered only by batteries with organic liquid electrolytes. However, such batteries require relatively stringent safety precautions, making large-scale systems very complicated and expensive. The application of solid electrolytes is currently limited because they attain practically useful conductivities (10(-2) S cm(-1)) only at 50-80 °C, which is one order of magnitude lower than those of organic liquid electrolytes. Here, we report a lithium superionic conductor, Li(10)GeP(2)S(12) that has a new three-dimensional framework structure. It exhibits an extremely high lithium ionic conductivity of 12 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. This represents the highest conductivity achieved in a solid electrolyte, exceeding even those of liquid organic electrolytes. This new solid-state battery electrolyte has many advantages in terms of device fabrication (facile shaping, patterning and integration), stability (non-volatile), safety (non-explosive) and excellent electrochemical properties (high conductivity and wide potential window).
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