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Electromagnetic coil

About: Electromagnetic coil is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 187832 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1168432 citation(s). The topic is also known as: electromagnetic coil.
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TL;DR: The problem of image reconstruction from sensitivity encoded data is formulated in a general fashion and solved for arbitrary coil configurations and k‐space sampling patterns and special attention is given to the currently most practical case, namely, sampling a common Cartesian grid with reduced density.
Abstract: The invention relates to a method of parallel imaging for obtaining images by means of magnetic resonance (MR). The method includes the simultaneous measurement of sets of MR singals by an array of receiver coils, and the reconstruction of individual receiver coil images from the sets of MR signals. In order to reduce the acquisition time, the distance between adjacent phase encoding lines in k-space is increased, compared to standard Fourier imaging, by a non-integer factor smaller than the number of receiver coils. This undersampling gives rise to aliasing artifacts in the individual receiver coil images. An unaliased final image with the same field of view as in standard Fourier imaging is formed from a combination of the individual receiver coil images whereby account is taken of the mutually different spatial sensitivities of the receiver coils at the positions of voxels which in the receiver coil images become superimposed by aliasing. This requires the solution of a linear equation by means of the generalised inverse of a sensitivity matrix. The reduction of the number of phase encoding lines by a non-integer factor compared to standard Fourier imaging provides that different numbers of voxels become superimposed (by aliasing) in different regions of the receiver coil images. This effect can be exploited to shift residual aliasing artifacts outside the area of interest.

6,205 citations

Abstract: A magnetic resonance (MR) imaging apparatus and technique exploits spatial information inherent in a surface coil array to increase MR image acquisition speed, resolution and/or field of view. Partial signals are acquired simultaneously in the component coils of the array and formed into two or more signals corresponding to orthogonal spatial representations. In a Fourier embodiment, lines of the k-space matrix required for image production are formed using a set of separate, preferably linear combinations of the component coil signals to substitute for spatial modulations normally produced by phase encoding gradients. The signal combining may proceed in a parallel or flow-through fashion, or as post-processing, which in either case reduces the need for time-consuming gradient switching and expensive fast magnet arrangements. In the post-processing approach, stored signals are combined after the fact to yield the full data matrix. In the flow-through approach, a plug-in unit consisting of a coil array with an on board processor outputs two or more sets of combined spatial signals for each spin conditioning cycle, each directly corresponding to a distinct line in k-space. This partially parallel imaging strategy, dubbed SiMultaneous Acquisition of Spatial Harmonics (SMASH), is readily integrated with many existing fast imaging sequences, yielding multiplicative time savings without a significant sacrifice in spatial resolution or signal-to-noise ratio. An experimental system achieved two-fold improvement in image acquisition time with a prototype three-coil array, and larger factors are achievable with ther coil arrangements.

2,256 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: With the subject exposed to an alternating magnetic field, eye position may be accurately recorded from the voltage generated in a coil of wire embedded in a scleral contact lens worn by the subject. Using two magnetic fields in quadrature phase and two coils on the lens, one may measure horizontal, vertical and torsional eye movements simultaneously. The instrument described has an accuracy and linearity of about 2 per cent of full scale, a resolution of 15 seconds of arc and a bandwidth of 1000 cyles per second.

1,579 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Vibration energy harvesting is receiving a considerable amount of interest as a means for powering wireless sensor nodes This paper presents a small (component volume 01 cm3, practical volume 015 cm3) electromagnetic generator utilizing discrete components and optimized for a low ambient vibration level based upon real application data The generator uses four magnets arranged on an etched cantilever with a wound coil located within the moving magnetic field Magnet size and coil properties were optimized, with the final device producing 46 µW in a resistive load of 4 k? from just 059 m s-2 acceleration levels at its resonant frequency of 52 Hz A voltage of 428 mVrms was obtained from the generator with a 2300 turn coil which has proved sufficient for subsequent rectification and voltage step-up circuitry The generator delivers 30% of the power supplied from the environment to useful electrical power in the load This generator compares very favourably with other demonstrated examples in the literature, both in terms of normalized power density and efficiency

1,181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A fresh approach to the calculation of signal-to-noise ratio, using the Principle of Reciprocity, is formulated, to give the same results as the traditional method of calculation, but its advantage lies in its ability to predict the ratio for other coil configurations.
Abstract: A fresh approach to the calculation of signal-to-noise ratio, using the Principle of Reciprocity, is formulated. The method is shown, for a solenoidal receiving coil, to give the same results as the traditional method of calculation, but its advantage lies in its ability to predict the ratio for other coil configurations. Particular attention is paid to the poor performance of a saddle-shaped (or Helmholtz) coil. Some of the practical problems involved are also discussed, including the error of matching the probe to the input impedance of the preamplifier.

1,037 citations

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