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Electromagnetically induced transparency

About: Electromagnetically induced transparency is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5201 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 142180 citation(s). The topic is also known as: EIT.

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Coherent preparation by laser light of quantum states of atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the amplitudes of optical transitions. In this way the optical properties of a medium can be dramatically modified, leading to electromagnetically induced transparency and related effects, which have placed gas-phase systems at the center of recent advances in the development of media with radically new optical properties. This article reviews these advances and the new possibilities they offer for nonlinear optics and quantum information science. As a basis for the theory of electromagnetically induced transparency the authors consider the atomic dynamics and the optical response of the medium to a continuous-wave laser. They then discuss pulse propagation and the adiabatic evolution of field-coupled states and show how coherently prepared media can be used to improve frequency conversion in nonlinear optical mixing experiments. The extension of these concepts to very weak optical fields in the few-photon limit is then examined. The review concludes with a discussion of future prospects and potential new applications.

3,732 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Feb 1999-Nature
Abstract: Techniques that use quantum interference effects are being actively investigated to manipulate the optical properties of quantum systems1. One such example is electromagnetically induced transparency, a quantum effect that permits the propagation of light pulses through an otherwise opaque medium2,3,4,5. Here we report an experimental demonstration of electromagnetically induced transparency in an ultracold gas of sodium atoms, in which the optical pulses propagate at twenty million times slower than the speed of light in a vacuum. The gas is cooled to nanokelvin temperatures by laser and evaporative cooling6,7,8,9,10. The quantum interference controlling the optical properties of the medium is set up by a ‘coupling’ laser beam propagating at a right angle to the pulsed ‘probe’ beam. At nanokelvin temperatures, the variation of refractive index with probe frequency can be made very steep. In conjunction with the high atomic density, this results in the exceptionally low light speeds observed. By cooling the cloud below the transition temperature for Bose–Einstein condensation11,12,13 (causing a macroscopic population of alkali atoms in the quantum ground state of the confining potential), we observe even lower pulse propagation velocities (17?m?s−1) owing to the increased atom density. We report an inferred nonlinear refractive index of 0.18?cm2?W−1 and find that the system shows exceptionally large optical nonlinearities, which are of potential fundamental and technological interest for quantum optics.

3,254 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Electromagnetically induced transparency is a technique for eliminating the effect of a medium on a propagating beam of electromagnetic radiation EIT may also be used, but under more limited conditions, to eliminate optical self‐focusing and defocusing and to improve the transmission of laser beams through inhomogeneous refracting gases and metal vapors, as figure 1 illustrates The technique may be used to create large populations of coherently driven uniformly phased atoms, thereby making possible new types of optoelectronic devices

3,115 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We report the first demonstration of a technique by which an optically thick medium may be rendered transparent. The transparency results from a destructive interference of two dressed states which are created by applying a temporally smooth coupling laser between a bound state of an atom and the upper state of the transition which is to be made transparent. The transmittance of an autoionizing (ultraviolet) transition in Sr is changed from exp(-20) without a coupling laser present to exp(-1) in the presence of a coupling laser.

2,104 citations

Proceedings Article
12 May 1991
TL;DR: The first demonstration of a technique by which an optically thick medium may be rendered transparent is reported, which results from a destructive interference of two dressed states created by applying a temporally smooth coupling laser between a bound state of an atom and the upper state of the transition which is to be made transparent.
Abstract: We report the results of an experiment showing how an opaque atomic transition in neutral Strontium may be rendered transparent to radiation at its resonance frequency. This is accomplished by applying an electromagnetic coupling field (Fig. 1) between the upper state 4d5d1D2 of the transition and another state 4d5p1D2; of the atom. When the Rabi frequency of the coupling field exceeds the inhomogeneous width of the 5s5p1P1–4d5d1D2; transition, the medium becomes transparent on line center.

1,897 citations

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No. of papers in the topic in previous years