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Electromagnetically induced transparency

About: Electromagnetically induced transparency is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 5201 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 142180 citation(s). The topic is also known as: EIT.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/REVMODPHYS.77.633
Abstract: Coherent preparation by laser light of quantum states of atoms and molecules can lead to quantum interference in the amplitudes of optical transitions. In this way the optical properties of a medium can be dramatically modified, leading to electromagnetically induced transparency and related effects, which have placed gas-phase systems at the center of recent advances in the development of media with radically new optical properties. This article reviews these advances and the new possibilities they offer for nonlinear optics and quantum information science. As a basis for the theory of electromagnetically induced transparency the authors consider the atomic dynamics and the optical response of the medium to a continuous-wave laser. They then discuss pulse propagation and the adiabatic evolution of field-coupled states and show how coherently prepared media can be used to improve frequency conversion in nonlinear optical mixing experiments. The extension of these concepts to very weak optical fields in the few-photon limit is then examined. The review concludes with a discussion of future prospects and potential new applications.

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3,732 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/17561
18 Feb 1999-Nature
Abstract: Techniques that use quantum interference effects are being actively investigated to manipulate the optical properties of quantum systems1. One such example is electromagnetically induced transparency, a quantum effect that permits the propagation of light pulses through an otherwise opaque medium2,3,4,5. Here we report an experimental demonstration of electromagnetically induced transparency in an ultracold gas of sodium atoms, in which the optical pulses propagate at twenty million times slower than the speed of light in a vacuum. The gas is cooled to nanokelvin temperatures by laser and evaporative cooling6,7,8,9,10. The quantum interference controlling the optical properties of the medium is set up by a ‘coupling’ laser beam propagating at a right angle to the pulsed ‘probe’ beam. At nanokelvin temperatures, the variation of refractive index with probe frequency can be made very steep. In conjunction with the high atomic density, this results in the exceptionally low light speeds observed. By cooling the cloud below the transition temperature for Bose–Einstein condensation11,12,13 (causing a macroscopic population of alkali atoms in the quantum ground state of the confining potential), we observe even lower pulse propagation velocities (17?m?s−1) owing to the increased atom density. We report an inferred nonlinear refractive index of 0.18?cm2?W−1 and find that the system shows exceptionally large optical nonlinearities, which are of potential fundamental and technological interest for quantum optics.

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  • Figure 2 MOC image showing blanketing material ®lling several craters that are 200±400 m in diameter. Image scale, 4.1 by 7.3m per pixel; 3.68 S, 340.58 W. The crater rims are moderately well preserved and visible, indicating that aeolian material has not simply been draped over the topography but has preferentially ®lled the lowest areas. The average depth of fresh 200-m craters is probably ,20 m. Rim heights above surroundings are typically much less than crater depths; thus the ®ll inside these craters is probably deeper than in much of the intervening plains.
    Figure 2 MOC image showing blanketing material ®lling several craters that are 200±400 m in diameter. Image scale, 4.1 by 7.3m per pixel; 3.68 S, 340.58 W. The crater rims are moderately well preserved and visible, indicating that aeolian material has not simply been draped over the topography but has preferentially ®lled the lowest areas. The average depth of fresh 200-m craters is probably ,20 m. Rim heights above surroundings are typically much less than crater depths; thus the ®ll inside these craters is probably deeper than in much of the intervening plains.
  • Figure 1 Experimental set-up. A `coupling' laser beam propagates along the x axis with its linear polarization along the 11-G bias ®eld in the z direction. The `probe' laser pulse propagates along the z axis and is left-circularly polarized. With a ¯ipper mirror in front of the camera CCD 1, we direct this probe beam either to the camera or to the photomultiplier (PMT). For pulse delay measurements, we place apinhole in an external imageplane of the imaging optics and select a small area, 15 mm in diameter, of the probe beam centred on the atom clouds (as indicated by the dashed circle in inset (i)). The pulse delays are measured with the PMT. The imaging beam propagating along the y axis is used to image atom clouds onto camera CCD 2 to ®nd the length of the clouds along the pulse propagation direction (z axis) for determination of light speeds. Inset (ii) shows atoms cooled to 450 nK which is 15nK above Tc. (Note that this imaging beam is never applied at the same time as the probe pulse and coupling laser). The position of a cloud and its diameter in the two transverse directions, x and y, are found with CCD 1. Inset (i) shows an image of a condensate.
    Figure 1 Experimental set-up. A `coupling' laser beam propagates along the x axis with its linear polarization along the 11-G bias ®eld in the z direction. The `probe' laser pulse propagates along the z axis and is left-circularly polarized. With a ¯ipper mirror in front of the camera CCD 1, we direct this probe beam either to the camera or to the photomultiplier (PMT). For pulse delay measurements, we place apinhole in an external imageplane of the imaging optics and select a small area, 15 mm in diameter, of the probe beam centred on the atom clouds (as indicated by the dashed circle in inset (i)). The pulse delays are measured with the PMT. The imaging beam propagating along the y axis is used to image atom clouds onto camera CCD 2 to ®nd the length of the clouds along the pulse propagation direction (z axis) for determination of light speeds. Inset (ii) shows atoms cooled to 450 nK which is 15nK above Tc. (Note that this imaging beam is never applied at the same time as the probe pulse and coupling laser). The position of a cloud and its diameter in the two transverse directions, x and y, are found with CCD 1. Inset (i) shows an image of a condensate.
  • Figure 3 Pulse delay measurement. The front pulse (open circles) is a reference pulse with no atoms in the system. The other pulse (®lled circles) is delayed by 7.05 ms in a 229-mm-long atom cloud (see inset (ii) in Fig.1a). The corresponding light speed is 32.5 ms-1. The curves represent gaussian ®ts to the measured pulses.
    Figure 3 Pulse delay measurement. The front pulse (open circles) is a reference pulse with no atoms in the system. The other pulse (®lled circles) is delayed by 7.05 ms in a 229-mm-long atom cloud (see inset (ii) in Fig.1a). The corresponding light speed is 32.5 ms-1. The curves represent gaussian ®ts to the measured pulses.
  • Figure 2 MOC image showing blanketing material ®lling several craters that are 200±400 m in diameter. Image scale, 4.1 by 7.3m per pixel; 3.68 S, 340.58 W. The crater rims are moderately well preserved and visible, indicating that aeolian material has not simply been draped over the topography but has preferentially ®lled the lowest areas. The average depth of fresh 200-m craters is probably ,20 m. Rim heights above surroundings are typically much less than crater depths; thus the ®ll inside these craters is probably deeper than in much of the intervening plains.
    Figure 2 MOC image showing blanketing material ®lling several craters that are 200±400 m in diameter. Image scale, 4.1 by 7.3m per pixel; 3.68 S, 340.58 W. The crater rims are moderately well preserved and visible, indicating that aeolian material has not simply been draped over the topography but has preferentially ®lled the lowest areas. The average depth of fresh 200-m craters is probably ,20 m. Rim heights above surroundings are typically much less than crater depths; thus the ®ll inside these craters is probably deeper than in much of the intervening plains.
  • Figure 4 Light speed versus atom cloud temperature. The speed decreases with temperature due to the atom density increase. The open circles are for a coupling powerof 52mW cm-2 and the ®lled circles are fora coupling powerof 12mW cm-2. The temperature Tc marks the transition temperature for Bose±Einstein condensation. The decrease in group velocity below Tc is due to a density increase of the atom cloud when the condensate is formed. From imaging measurements we obtain a maximum atom density of 8 3 1013 cm2 3 at a temperature of 200 nK. Here, the dense condensate component constitutes 60% of all atoms, and the total atom density is 16 times larger than the density of a noncondensed cloud at Tc. The light speed measurement at 50 nK is for a cloud with a condensate fraction >90%. The ®nite dephasing rate due to state | 4i does not allow pulse penetration of the most dense clouds. This problem could be overcome by tuning the laser to the Dl line as described in the text.
    Figure 4 Light speed versus atom cloud temperature. The speed decreases with temperature due to the atom density increase. The open circles are for a coupling powerof 52mW cm-2 and the ®lled circles are fora coupling powerof 12mW cm-2. The temperature Tc marks the transition temperature for Bose±Einstein condensation. The decrease in group velocity below Tc is due to a density increase of the atom cloud when the condensate is formed. From imaging measurements we obtain a maximum atom density of 8 3 1013 cm2 3 at a temperature of 200 nK. Here, the dense condensate component constitutes 60% of all atoms, and the total atom density is 16 times larger than the density of a noncondensed cloud at Tc. The light speed measurement at 50 nK is for a cloud with a condensate fraction >90%. The ®nite dephasing rate due to state | 4i does not allow pulse penetration of the most dense clouds. This problem could be overcome by tuning the laser to the Dl line as described in the text.
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Topics: Electromagnetically induced transparency (65%), Quantum optics (60%), Slow light (58%) ...read more

3,254 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.881806
Stephen E. Harris1Institutions (1)
01 Jul 1997-Physics Today
Abstract: Electromagnetically induced transparency is a technique for eliminating the effect of a medium on a propagating beam of electromagnetic radiation EIT may also be used, but under more limited conditions, to eliminate optical self‐focusing and defocusing and to improve the transmission of laser beams through inhomogeneous refracting gases and metal vapors, as figure 1 illustrates The technique may be used to create large populations of coherently driven uniformly phased atoms, thereby making possible new types of optoelectronic devices

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3,115 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.66.2593
Abstract: We report the first demonstration of a technique by which an optically thick medium may be rendered transparent. The transparency results from a destructive interference of two dressed states which are created by applying a temporally smooth coupling laser between a bound state of an atom and the upper state of the transition which is to be made transparent. The transmittance of an autoionizing (ultraviolet) transition in Sr is changed from exp(-20) without a coupling laser present to exp(-1) in the presence of a coupling laser.

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2,104 Citations


Open accessProceedings Article
12 May 1991-
Abstract: We report the results of an experiment showing how an opaque atomic transition in neutral Strontium may be rendered transparent to radiation at its resonance frequency. This is accomplished by applying an electromagnetic coupling field (Fig. 1) between the upper state 4d5d1D2 of the transition and another state 4d5p1D2; of the atom. When the Rabi frequency of the coupling field exceeds the inhomogeneous width of the 5s5p1P1–4d5d1D2; transition, the medium becomes transparent on line center.

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Topics: Rabi frequency (64%), Electromagnetically induced transparency (61%), Opacity (52%) ...read more

1,897 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20226
2021260
2020268
2019279
2018288
2017289

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Min Xiao

71 papers, 3.1K citations

Guoxiang Huang

52 papers, 615 citations

Yanpeng Zhang

50 papers, 871 citations

Marlan O. Scully

30 papers, 887 citations

Michael Fleischhauer

30 papers, 3.5K citations

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