Electron beam welding
About: Electron beam welding is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3495 publications have been published within this topic receiving 27053 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Jun 1984-Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B-process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
TL;DR: In this article, a double ellipsoidal geometry is proposed to model both shallow penetration arc welding processes and the deeper penetration laser and electron beam processes, which can be easily changed to handle non-axisymmetric cases such as strip electrodes or dissimilar metal joining.
Abstract: A mathematical model for weld heat sources based on a Gaussian distribution of power density in space is presented. In particular a double ellipsoidal geometry is proposed so that the size and shape of the heat source can be easily changed to model both the shallow penetration arc welding processes and the deeper penetration laser and electron beam processes. In addition, it has the versatility and flexibility to handle non-axisymmetric cases such as strip electrodes or dissimilar metal joining. Previous models assumed circular or spherical symmetry. The computations are performed with ASGARD, a nonlinear transient finite element (FEM) heat flow program developed for the thermal stress analysis of welds.* Computed temperature distributions for submerged arc welds in thick workpieces are compared to the measured values reported by Christensen1 and the FEM calculated values (surface heat source model) of Krutz and Segerlind.2 In addition the computed thermal history of deep penetration electron beam welds are compared to measured values reported by Chong.3 The agreement between the computed and measured values is shown to be excellent.
TL;DR: In this paper, approximated examples of the use of the electron beam are given by the welding, rapid prototyping, texturing surface, cladding with wire and powder as well as alloying.
Abstract: Electron beam welding, despite a long history and widespread arc and laser technology, is still widely used in industry. The main applications for this high efficiency welding process are: automotive, electronics, electrical engineering, aerospace and mechanical engineering industry. The technology ensures high-quality welded joints in structural metals in a wide range of thickness from 0.025 mm to 300 mm. It is also used for the production of films and coatings by deposition and surface modification. In the paper approximated examples of the use of the electron beam are given by the welding, rapid prototyping, texturing surface, cladding with wire and powder as well as alloying. It also provides information about the possible techniques that can be used during these processes and the trends in electron beam welding.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the electron beam melting (EBM) process and present results of microstructural analyses on H13 tool steel processed via EBM, which is a direct metal free-form fabrication technique in which a 4'kW electron beam is used to melt metal powder in a layerwise fashion.
Abstract: Electron beam melting (EBM) is a direct‐metal freeform fabrication technique in which a 4 kW electron beam is used to melt metal powder in a layer‐wise fashion. As this process is relatively new, there have not yet been any independently published studies on the H13 steel microstructural properties. This paper describes the EBM process and presents results of microstructural analyses on H13 tool steel processed via EBM.
TL;DR: In this paper, a general procedure for predicting the solidification microstructure of single-crystal welds with any arbitrary orientation is established, and steady state is established within a few millimeters of the beginning of the weld.
Abstract: A geometric analysis technique for the evaluation of the microstructures in autogenous single-crystal electron beam welds has been previously developed. In the present work, these analytical methods are further extended, and a general procedure for predicting the solidification microstructure of single-crystal welds with any arbitrary orientation is established. Examples of this general analysis are given for several welding orientations. It is shown that a nonsymmetric cell structure is expected in transverse micrographs for most welding geometries. The development of steady-state conditions in the weld pool is also examined in terms of the weld pool size, its shape (as revealed by the dendritic growth pattern), and the size of the dendritic cells. It is found that steady state is established within a few millimeters of the beginning of the weld. Furthermore, steady state is achieved faster in welds made at higher welding speeds. A general analysis of the three-dimensional (3-D) weld pool shape based on the dendritic structure as revealed in the two-dimensional (2-D) transverse micrographs is also developed. It is shown that in combination with information on the preferred growth direction as a function of the solidification front orientation, the entire dendritic growth pattern in single-crystal welds can be predicted. A comparison with the actual weld micrographs shows a reasonable agreement between the theory and experiment. Finally, the theoretical analysis of the dendrite tip radius is extended from binary systems to include the case of ternary systems. The theoretical dendrite trunk spacing in a ternary Fe-Ni-Cr alloy is calculated from the dendrite tip radius and is compared with the experimental values for several weld conditions. Good agreement between experiment and theory is found.